The Lancet recientes

The Lancet recientes 2017-01-13T02:37:25+00:00

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The Lancet - recientes

[Editorial] Orban not delivering health for Hungary
21/4/2018
The Lancet
ver resumen
Viktor Orban's re-election to a third consecutive term in Hungary offers a preview for western countries of what the health consequences could be for governments that value populism and economic strength over the health of their people. The controversial populist was swept back into power by a wave of support, with a manifesto that included a crackdown on liberal non-governmental organisations. Orban said before the election that his opponents will face “moral, political, and legal revenge”, in the aftermath.

[Editorial] Sexual harassment and abuse—the sinister underbelly
21/4/2018
The Lancet
ver resumen
This week, The Lancet, publishes a Special Report on allegations of sexual harassment and abuse at UNAIDS. The report suggests that UNAIDS has at best marginalised and at worst buried allegations of sexual harassment. Its responses have been unduly weak and unacceptable, and the announcements of remediation are too little too late. Furthermore, internal loyalty to the existing leadership seems to trump integrity in the organisation, and has contributed to a culture devoid of transparency and accountability.

[Editorial] UK COPD treatment: failing to progress
21/4/2018
The Lancet
ver resumen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality in the world today. More than a million British people lived with diagnosed COPD in the UK in 2014–15, or just under 2% of the population. COPD admissions to emergency services in the UK are on the rise, but, access to treatments shown to reduce patients' time spent in hospital is still woefully inadequate.

[Comment] Insecticide-resistant malaria vectors must be tackled
11/4/2018
Gerry F Killeen, Hilary Ranson
ver resumen
Vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying accounts for most of the 1·3 billion fewer malaria cases and 6·8 million fewer malaria-related deaths attributable to declining transmission between 2000 and 2015.1–3 However, because resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has spread through African malaria vector populations, concerns over maintaining these gains have been widely voiced—but these are frequently disputed.4 The findings presented by Natacha Protopopoff and colleagues5 in The Lancet provide rigorous, long overdue, new evidence for those working in the field of malaria vector control.

[Comment] A snapshot of surgical outcomes and needs in Africa
3/1/2018
Anna J Dare, Bisola Onajin-Obembe, Emmanuel M Makasa
ver resumen
It is estimated that two-thirds of the world's population do not have access to safe, affordable, and timely surgical care.1 Around 16·9 million people die from conditions that require surgical care each year, most of them in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).2 In 2014, Jim Kim, President of the World Bank, challenged the global community to address this injustice, and to develop targets to measure progress on effective coverage of surgical interventions.3 In response, the global surgery community developed a set of core surgical indicators that measure timely access, provider density, operative volume, surgical safety, and financial effects.

[Comment] Macrolide resistance in yaws
7/2/2018
David Šmajs, Petra Pospíšilová
ver resumen
The study by Oriol Mitjà and colleagues in The Lancet1 shows that a single round of mass administration of azithromycin is insufficient to achieve yaws eradication. It also represents the first report of a mutation in both 23S rRNA genes of the yaws-causing spirochaete, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T p pertenue), causing macrolide resistance in five epidemiologically linked patients. The mutation, A2059G, was previously reported in a patient with syphilis (caused by T p pallidum) with spiramycin treatment failure;2 it is one of two macrolide-resistant mutations previously detected in T p pallidum (the other is A2058G).

[Comment] The Lancet Commission on malaria eradication
16/4/2018
Ingrid Chen, Rebecca Cooney, Richard G A Feachem, Altaf Lal, Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho
ver resumen
20 years ago, infectious diseases dominated the global health agenda. Policy makers, researchers, implementers, and donors united in the fight against infectious diseases, creating the Millennium Development Goals, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM),1 and more. Tremendous progress was made. Malaria benefited spectacularly and there has been a 47% reduction in global deaths from the disease since 2000.

[Comment] Social lobbying: a call to arms for public health
21/4/2018
Alessandro Demaio, Robert Marshall
ver resumen
The term lobbying derives from the public lobbies of the UK Houses of Parliament in London, where concerned citizens have gathered since at least the 16th century to speak with elected officials on the sidelines of legislative debates. In today's parlance, lobbying has evolved to represent a more pernicious and systematic approach to influencing lawmakers, occurring much deeper within the corridors of power.

[Comment] Offline: The legacy and lessons of May '68
21/4/2018
Richard Horton
ver resumen
Doctors have only cared for the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. Imagine you are a distinguished Professor of Medicine, the Rector of one of your country's most garlanded universities. Your students are angry. They have seen fellow students at a nearby university rebel against atrociously poor conditions—overcrowding, incompetent curriculum reforms, and feelings of utter alienation. Tensions are palpable. The air is chilled by the threat of violence. What would you do? Let us not judge.

[Special Report] Claims of sexual harassment and assault threaten UN agency
21/4/2018
John Zarocostas
ver resumen
Sexual harassment and assault investigation at UNAIDS draws attention to an endemic problem. Critics say the UN's internal system is flawed and call for external oversight. John Zarocostas reports.

[Perspectives] Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho: leader in the fight against malaria
21/4/2018
John Zarocostas
ver resumen
“The malaria fight is at a crossroads. If we don't seize the moment now, our hard-won gains against the disease will be lost,” says Winnie Mpanju-Shumbusho. “After a decade of progress, malaria cases have increased for the first time, and funding for malaria treatments and prevention has plateaued…especially in Africa which carries more than 90% of the disease burden and progress has stalled over the past few years. We need a new movement to mobilise the political will and resources, as well as citizen action, towards effective malaria control and elimination.” As Board Chair of the RBM Partnership to End Malaria, she is in the forefront of global efforts to mobilise the necessary political will and resources to ensure the fight against malaria is renewed with vigour.

[Perspectives] Water and our planet
21/4/2018
Helen Bynum, Bill Bynum
ver resumen
From worryingly low precipitation in California to acute water shortages in Cape Town, climate change is exacerbating natural variations in weather patterns. Problems of water use and security are apparent worldwide and underpin Edward Burtynsky: Water Matters, an exhibition at Arup's offices in London's Fitzrovia. Canadian photographer and film maker Burtynsky has been photographing our environment for over 30 years, documenting the industrially ravaged earth in the process. He turned his attention to water in 2009, releasing the critically acclaimed film Watermark with Jennifer Baichwal in 2013.

[Perspectives] Stories of shame
21/4/2018
Barry Lyons, Matthew Gibson, Luna Dolezal
ver resumen
The American physician and writer, Danielle Ofri, tells the story of a near fatal mistake that she made at the beginning of the second year of her residency. A patient was brought to the emergency room in a diabetic coma, and although her initial management was fine, Ofri then made an error and “proceeded to nearly kill…[the] patient”. Recognising her predicament, she called for senior assistance. When an explanation was demanded of her performance, Ofri's words dried up. Humiliation set in as she was questioned in front of her intern: “I could almost feel myself dying away on the spot.

[Obituary] Dame Beulah Rosemary Bewley
21/4/2018
Geoff Watts
ver resumen
Public health physician and champion of women in medicine. She was born in Derry, UK, on Sept 2, 1929, and died with heart disease and dementia in London, UK, on Jan 20, 2018, aged 88 years.

[Correspondence] Surgical surveillance in resource-poor settings
21/4/2018
Abi Beane, Duncan Wagstaff, Anuja Abayadeera, David Walker, Rashan Haniffa
ver resumen
We congratulate the African Surgical Outcomes Study team, led by investigators from low-income and middle-income countries, for quantifying the scale of global inequality in surgical care, and for providing measurable goals for future improvement efforts (April 21, p 1589).1 This work also highlights the poor availability of the detailed information necessary to translate these inequalities into potential solutions.2,3 Continuous surveillance systems or registries could provide such information but are notoriously challenging; disparate paper-based systems, inadequate resources, and overburdened staff are seemingly insurmountable problems.

[Correspondence] Healthier lives for all Africans
21/4/2018
Robert Mash, Akye Essuman, Innocent Besigye, Olayinka Ayankogbe, Per Kallestrup, Jan De Maeseneer
ver resumen
In their Commission, Irene Agyepong and colleagues (Dec 23, 2017, p 2803)1 provide a comprehensive report on the pathway to healthier lives for all Africans by 2030. As highlighted in the Commission, we have been involved in training family physicians in Africa for the past 20 years within the framework of the Primary Care and Family Medicine Education (Primafamed) network, a South–South cooperation that brings together family medicine, primary care, and public health in more than 20 African countries.

[Correspondence] The hepatitis B epidemic in China should receive more attention
21/4/2018
Shanquan Chen, Jun Li, Dan Wang, Hong Fung, Lai-yi Wong, Lu Zhao
ver resumen
China's childhood hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programme is a great public health success, resulting in a prevalence of HBsAg of only 1% in children under 5 years. However, the burden of HBV infection in China is still the highest in the world, with one third of the world's 240 million people with chronic HBV living in China.1 Nevertheless, most people with HBV infection in China are unaware that they carry the disease, making HBV infection a truly silent epidemic.2

[Correspondence] Mesh augmentation for midline abdominal closure
21/4/2018
Tetsuji Fujita
ver resumen
In the 2-year follow-up of the PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial (Aug 5, 2017, p 567),1 prophylactic onlay mesh augmentation for midline abdominal closure significantly reduced the risk of incisional hernia, with similar risks of surgical site infection compared with primary closure. Consequently, An Jairam and colleagues1 conclude that onlay mesh augmentation has the potential to become the standard treatment for patients at high risk of incisional hernia.

[Correspondence] Prophylactic repair to prevent midline incisional hernia
21/4/2018
Badri M Shrestha
ver resumen
The PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial by An Jairam and colleagues (Aug 5, 2017, p 567),1 provides relevant information on the outcomes of prophylactic repair of midline laparotomies for the prevention of incisional hernia. The trial shows significant reduction in the incidence of incisional hernia with onlay and sublay mesh reinforcement compared with primary suture only repair in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, but not in patients with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m2, contrary to the claim made by the authors of the PRIMA trial (ie, superior outcome of onlay mesh repair in patients with BMI greater than 27 kg/m2).

[Correspondence] Prophylactic mesh augmentation in midline laparotomy
21/4/2018
Manuel Jakob, Guido Beldi
ver resumen
The conclusions of the PRIMA (PRImary Mesh closure of Abdominal midline wounds) trial1 (Aug 5, 2017, p 567) need to be taken with caution for several reasons. The rate of 18% of incisional hernia in patients receiving prophylactic sublay mesh implantation is very high compared with frequencies below 5% in many other reports.2,3 Furthermore, most series report a lower recurrence rate after sublay than onlay mesh implantation in the repair of incisional hernia.4,5 Therefore, the technical problems or insufficient training with the sublay group does not allow the conclusion that onlay mesh reinforcement has the potential to become the standard treatment for high-risk patients having elective midline laparotomy.



The Lancet - cardiopatía isquémica

[Articles] 6-month versus 12-month or longer dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome (SMART-DATE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial
12/3/2018
ver resumen
The increased risk of myocardial infarction with 6-month DAPT and the wide non-inferiority margin prevent us from concluding that short-term DAPT is safe in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with current-generation DES. Prolonged DAPT in patients with acute coronary syndrome without excessive risk of bleeding should remain the standard of care.

[Articles] Clinical efficacy and safety of achieving very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab: a prespecified secondary analysis of the FOURIER trial
28/8/2017
ver resumen
There was a monotonic relationship between achieved LDL cholesterol and major cardiovascular outcomes down to LDL-cholesterol concentrations of less than 0·2 mmol/L. Conversely, there were no safety concerns with very low LDL-cholesterol concentrations over a median of 2·2 years. These data support further LDL-cholesterol lowering in patients with cardiovascular disease to well below current recommendations.

[Articles] Adverse events associated with unblinded, but not with blinded, statin therapy in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial—Lipid-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial and its non-randomised non-blind extension phase
2/5/2017
ver resumen
These analyses illustrate the so-called nocebo effect, with an excess rate of muscle-related AE reports only when patients and their doctors were aware that statin therapy was being used and not when its use was blinded. These results will help assure both physicians and patients that most AEs associated with statins are not causally related to use of the drug and should help counter the adverse effect on public health of exaggerated claims about statin-related side-effects.

[Articles] Percutaneous coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass grafting in treatment of unprotected left main stenosis (NOBLE): a prospective, randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial
31/10/2016
ver resumen
The findings of this study suggest that CABG might be better than PCI for treatment of left main stem coronary artery disease.

[Articles] Comparison of an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold with an everolimus-eluting metallic stent for the treatment of coronary artery stenosis (ABSORB II): a 3 year, randomised, controlled, single-blind, multicentre clinical trial
30/10/2016
ver resumen
The trial did not meet its co-primary endpoints of superior vasomotor reactivity and non-inferior late luminal loss for the Absorb bioresorbable scaffold with respect to the metallic stent, which was found to have significantly lower late luminal loss than the Absorb scaffold. A higher rate of device-oriented composite endpoint due to target vessel myocardial infarction, including peri-procedural myocardial infarction, was observed in the Absorb group. The patient-oriented composite endpoint, anginal status, and exercise testing, were not statistically different between both devices at 3 years.

[Articles] Optical coherence tomography compared with intravascular ultrasound and with angiography to guide coronary stent implantation (ILUMIEN III: OPTIMIZE PCI): a randomised controlled trial
30/10/2016
ver resumen
OCT-guided PCI using a specific reference segment external elastic lamina-based stent optimisation strategy was safe and resulted in similar minimum stent area to that of IVUS-guided PCI. These data warrant a large-scale randomised trial to establish whether or not OCT guidance results in superior clinical outcomes to angiography guidance.

[Articles] Very thin strut biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents in allcomers with coronary artery disease (BIO-RESORT): a three-arm, randomised, non-inferiority trial
30/10/2016
ver resumen
At 12 month follow-up, both very thin strut drug-eluting stents with dissimilar biodegradable polymer coatings (eluting either everolimus or sirolimus) were non-inferior to the durable polymer stent (eluting zotarolimus) in treating allcomers with a high proportion of patients with acute coronary syndromes. The absence of a loss of 1 year safety and efficacy with the use of these two biodegradable polymer-coated stents is a prerequisite before assessing their potential longer-term benefits.

[Review] Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy
8/9/2016
ver resumen
This Review is intended to help clinicians, patients, and the public make informed decisions about statin therapy for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. It explains how the evidence that is available from randomised controlled trials yields reliable information about both the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. In addition, it discusses how claims that statins commonly cause adverse effects reflect a failure to recognise the limitations of other sources of evidence about the effects of treatment.

[Articles] Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II): 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study
29/8/2016
ver resumen
During 15 years of follow-up, an early invasive treatment strategy postponed the occurrence of death or next myocardial infarction by an average of 18 months, and the next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease by 37 months, compared with a non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This remaining lifetime perspective supports that an early invasive treatment strategy should be the preferred option in most patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

[Articles] Platelet function monitoring to adjust antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients stented for an acute coronary syndrome (ANTARCTIC): an open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised controlled superiority trial
28/8/2016
ver resumen
Platelet function monitoring with treatment adjustment did not improve the clinical outcome of elderly patients treated with coronary stenting for an acute coronary syndrome. Platelet function testing is still being used in many centres and international guidelines still recommend platelet function testing in high-risk situations. Our study does not support this practice or these recommendations.

[Seminar] Acute myocardial infarction
5/8/2016
ver resumen
Acute myocardial infarction has traditionally been divided into ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; however, therapies are similar between the two, and the overall management of acute myocardial infarction can be reviewed for simplicity. Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite substantial improvements in prognosis over the past decade. The progress is a result of several major trends, including improvements in risk stratification, more widespread use of an invasive strategy, implementation of care delivery systems prioritising immediate revascularisation through percutaneous coronary intervention (or fibrinolysis), advances in antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and greater use of secondary prevention strategies such as statins.

[Review] Pathophysiology and management of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV
9/2/2016
ver resumen
Results from several studies have suggested that people with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease, compared with people not infected with HIV. People living with HIV have an increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, and HIV-specific mechanisms such as immune activation. Although older, more metabolically harmful antiretroviral regimens probably contributed to the risk of cardiovascular disease, new data suggest that early and continuous use of modern regimens, which might have fewer metabolic effects, minimises the risk of myocardial infarction by maintaining viral suppression and decreasing immune activation.

[Articles] Plasma urate concentration and risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomisation analysis
15/1/2016
ver resumen
Conventional and multivariate Mendelian randomisation analysis implicates a causal role for urate in the development of coronary heart disease, but these estimates might be inflated by hidden pleiotropy. Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis, which accounts for pleiotropy but has less statistical power, suggests there might be no causal effect. These results might help investigators to determine the priority of trials of urate lowering for the prevention of coronary heart disease compared with other potential interventions.

[Articles] Risk of non-fatal cardiovascular diseases in early-onset versus late-onset type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study
15/12/2015
ver resumen
Chinese patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of non-fatal cardiovascular disease, mostly attributable to longer duration of diabetes.

[Articles] Regional contributions of six preventable risk factors to achieving the 25 × 25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study
20/10/2015
ver resumen
No WHO region will meet the 25 × 25 premature mortality target if current mortality trends continue. Achieving the agreed targets for the six risk factors will allow some regions to meet the 25 × 25 target and others to approach it. Meeting the 25 × 25 target in Africa needs other interventions, including those addressing infection-related cancers and cardiovascular disease.

[Comment] Prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a fork in the road?
28/9/2015
ver resumen
In efforts to improve protection against the adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy, several trials1–3 have investigated alternative drug regimens and strategies to replace sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy. Even before WHO first recommended inclusion of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in the focused antenatal care package in 2004,4 malaria parasites expressed mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes,5 compromising the protective effect of the intervention.

[Articles] Intermittent screening and treatment or intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the control of malaria during pregnancy in western Kenya: an open-label, three-group, randomised controlled superiority trial
28/9/2015
ver resumen
At current levels of rapid diagnostic test sensitivity, intermittent screening and treatment is not a suitable alternative to intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in the context of high sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance and malaria transmission. However, dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine is a promising alternative drug to replace sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment. Future studies should investigate the efficacy, safety, operational feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine.

[Articles] Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals
19/8/2015
ver resumen
Employees who work long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours.

[Articles] Cardiovascular safety of albiglutide in the Harmony programme: a meta-analysis
11/8/2015
ver resumen
Cardiovascular events were not significantly more likely to occur with albiglutide than with all comparators. Because the upper bound of the 95% CI for major adverse cardiovascular event plus hospital admission for unstable angina was greater than 1·3, a dedicated study with a cardiovascular endpoint is underway to confirm the safety of albiglutide.

[Articles] Antisense therapy targeting apolipoprotein(a): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study
22/7/2015
ver resumen
ISIS-APO(a)Rx results in potent, dose-dependent, selective reductions of plasma Lp(a). The safety and tolerability support continued clinical development of ISIS-APO(a)Rx as a potential therapeutic drug to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis in patients with elevated Lp(a) concentration.



The Lancet - hipertensión

[Articles] Intensive systolic blood pressure control and incident chronic kidney disease in people with and without diabetes mellitus: secondary analyses of two randomised controlled trials
20/4/2018
ver resumen
Intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure increased the risk of incident chronic kidney disease in people with and without type 2 diabetes. However, the absolute risk of incident chronic kidney disease was higher in people with type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest the need for vigilance in monitoring kidney function during intensive antihypertensive drug treatment, particularly in adults with diabetes. Long-term studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of antihypertensive treatment-related reductions in eGFR.

[Articles] Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and cascade of care in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional, population-based study in rural and urban Malawi
19/1/2018
ver resumen
Overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are highly prevalent in urban and rural Malawi, yet many patients are undiagnosed and management is limited. Local-evidence-informed multisectoral, innovative, and targeted interventions are needed urgently to manage the already high burden.

[Articles] Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial
5/12/2017
ver resumen
Our findings show that, at 12 months, almost half of participants achieved remission to a non-diabetic state and off antidiabetic drugs. Remission of type 2 diabetes is a practical target for primary care.

[Articles] Achieved blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients: results from ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials
5/4/2017
ver resumen
Mean achieved SBP less than 120 mm Hg during treatment was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes except for myocardial infarction and stroke. Similar patterns were observed for DBP less than 70 mm Hg, plus increased risk for myocardial infarction and hospital admission for heart failure. Very low blood pressure achieved on treatment was associated with increased risks of several cardiovascular disease events. These data suggest that the lowest blood pressure possible is not necessarily the optimal target for high-risk patients, although it is not possible to rule out some effect of reverse causality.

[Articles] Quarter-dose quadruple combination therapy for initial treatment of hypertension: placebo-controlled, crossover, randomised trial and systematic review
9/2/2017
ver resumen
The findings of our small trial in the context of previous randomised evidence suggest that the benefits of quarter-dose therapy could be additive across classes and might confer a clinically important reduction in blood pressure. Further examination of the quadpill concept is needed to investigate effectiveness against usual treatment options and longer term tolerability.

[Articles] Cardiovascular event rates and mortality according to achieved systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with stable coronary artery disease: an international cohort study
30/8/2016
ver resumen
In patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease from routine clinical practice, systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of less than 70 mm Hg were each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality, supporting the existence of a J-curve phenomenon. This finding suggests that caution should be taken in the use of blood pressure-lowering treatment in patients with coronary artery disease.

[Articles] Ramipril versus placebo in kidney transplant patients with proteinuria: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial
22/10/2015
ver resumen
Treatment with ramipril compared with placebo did not lead to a significant reduction in doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or death in kidney transplant recipients with proteinuria. These results do not support the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with the goal of improving clinical outcomes in this population.

[Articles] Regional contributions of six preventable risk factors to achieving the 25 × 25 non-communicable disease mortality reduction target: a modelling study
20/10/2015
ver resumen
No WHO region will meet the 25 × 25 premature mortality target if current mortality trends continue. Achieving the agreed targets for the six risk factors will allow some regions to meet the 25 × 25 target and others to approach it. Meeting the 25 × 25 target in Africa needs other interventions, including those addressing infection-related cancers and cardiovascular disease.

[Comment] Prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a fork in the road?
28/9/2015
ver resumen
In efforts to improve protection against the adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy, several trials1–3 have investigated alternative drug regimens and strategies to replace sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy. Even before WHO first recommended inclusion of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in the focused antenatal care package in 2004,4 malaria parasites expressed mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes,5 compromising the protective effect of the intervention.

[Articles] Intermittent screening and treatment or intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the control of malaria during pregnancy in western Kenya: an open-label, three-group, randomised controlled superiority trial
28/9/2015
ver resumen
At current levels of rapid diagnostic test sensitivity, intermittent screening and treatment is not a suitable alternative to intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in the context of high sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance and malaria transmission. However, dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine is a promising alternative drug to replace sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment. Future studies should investigate the efficacy, safety, operational feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine.

[Articles] Cardiovascular safety of albiglutide in the Harmony programme: a meta-analysis
11/8/2015
ver resumen
Cardiovascular events were not significantly more likely to occur with albiglutide than with all comparators. Because the upper bound of the 95% CI for major adverse cardiovascular event plus hospital admission for unstable angina was greater than 1·3, a dedicated study with a cardiovascular endpoint is underway to confirm the safety of albiglutide.

[Review] Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: clinical and radiological manifestations, pathophysiology, and outstanding questions
13/7/2015
ver resumen
Almost two decades have elapsed since posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was described in an influential case series. This usually reversible clinical syndrome is becoming increasingly recognised, in large part because of improved and more readily available brain imaging. Although the pathophysiological changes underlying PRES are not fully understood, endothelial dysfunction is a key factor. A diagnosis of PRES should be considered in the setting of acute neurological symptoms in patients with renal failure, blood pressure fluctuations, use of cytotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, or eclampsia.

[Articles] Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data
28/5/2015
ver resumen
Creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria should be taken into account for cardiovascular prediction, especially when these measures are already assessed for clinical purpose or if cardiovascular mortality and heart failure are outcomes of interest. ACR could have particularly broad implications for cardiovascular prediction. In populations with chronic kidney disease, the simultaneous assessment of eGFR and ACR could facilitate improved classification of cardiovascular risk, supporting current guidelines for chronic kidney disease.

[Articles] Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)
18/5/2015
ver resumen
Children of young mothers in LMICs are disadvantaged at birth and in childhood nutrition and schooling. Efforts to prevent early childbearing should be strengthened. After adjustment for confounders, children of older mothers have advantages in nutritional status and schooling. Extremes of maternal age could be associated with disturbed offspring glucose metabolism.

[Articles] Digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular outcomes: a retrospective analysis of the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF)
6/3/2015
ver resumen
Digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. This association was independent of other measured prognostic factors, and although residual confounding could account for these results, these data show the possibility of digoxin having these effects. A randomised trial of digoxin in treatment of AF patients with and without heart failure is needed.

[Articles] Effects of statin therapy on coronary artery plaque volume and high-risk plaque morphology in HIV-infected patients with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
9/1/2015
ver resumen
No significant effects of statin therapy on arterial inflammation of the aorta were seen as measured by FDG-PET. However, statin therapy reduced non-calcified plaque volume and high-risk coronary plaque features in HIV-infected patients. Further studies should assess whether reduction in high-risk coronary artery disease translates into effective prevention of cardiovascular events in this at-risk population.

[Comment] Optimum antihypertensive therapy: does adiposity matter?
4/11/2014
ver resumen
Given that at least 75% of patients with hypertension are obese, it is no coincidence that the continuing obesity epidemic is driving the increasing incidence of hypertension.1 Physicians have questioned whether the benefits of blood pressure lowering for cardiovascular disease might depend, in part, on choice of antihypertensive drugs (as shown in ACCOMPLISH2) and that the choice of drugs should vary with the state of adiposity.3

[Articles] Effects of blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular risk according to baseline body-mass index: a meta-analysis of randomised trials
4/11/2014
ver resumen
We found little evidence that selection of a particular class of blood pressure-lowering drug will lead to substantially different outcomes for individuals who are obese compared with those who are lean.

[Articles] Effects of long-term blood pressure lowering and dual antiplatelet treatment on cognitive function in patients with recent lacunar stroke: a secondary analysis from the SPS3 randomised trial
24/10/2014
ver resumen
Cognitive function is not affected by short-term dual antiplatelet treatment or blood pressure reduction in fairly young patients with recent lacunar stroke. Future studies of cognitive function after stroke should be of longer duration or focus on patients with higher rates of cognitive decline.

[Comment] Blood pressure control after stroke: too little, too late, or too soon to tell?
24/10/2014
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Cognitive decline is among the most feared and common changes in late life, and prevention of cognitive decline in any population is a worthy goal. In The Lancet Neurology, Lesly Pearce and colleagues1 report results of a prespecified secondary outcome analysis of cognitive function from the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial, which compared aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin plus placebo, and high goal (130–149 mm Hg) with low goal (<130 mm Hg) blood pressure targets, in a factorial design.







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