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The 2017 Guideline on Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults
Cifu AS, Davis AM.
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This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults.

Moral Choices for Today’s Physician
Berwick DM.
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In this essay, Don Berwick considers moral choices physicians face personally, organizationally, and globally and exhorts them to understand that the health of humanity depends on their speaking out against the social injustice of overpricing drugs and services, mass incarceration, and the lack of environmental responsibility.

Can Exercise Prevent Knee Osteoarthritis?
Abbasi J.
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This Medical News article discusses whether sedentary lifestyles contribute to this increasingly prevalent degenerative joint disease.

The 2017 Hypertension Guideline: What’s New and Different
Whelton PK, Carey RM.
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This Viewpoint reviews key recommendations in the 2017 Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure authored by the AHA, ACC, and 9 other specialty organizations, and highlights differences from the 2003 JNC 7 guideline.

The 2017 Hypertension Guideline: Highlights for Clinical Practice
Greenland P, Peterson E.
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Hypertension, the world’s most common and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, has been the focus of multiple clinical practice guidelines dating back to the first Joint National Committee in 1977. In 2014, a writing group commissioned by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute focused on a few key treatment questions and used data only from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to inform their recommendations. Based on a lack of RCT evidence, the writing group recommended relaxing some of the treatment goals for several subgroups, including patients aged 60 years or older and those with diabetes or kidney disease. Even before publication, these somewhat conservative recommendations were criticized and ultimately not endorsed either by major professional societies or by some of the original guideline writing group.

2014 Guideline for Management of High Blood Pressure
James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al.
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In the report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the guideline authors provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of hypertension including specific goals by age, race, and comorbidities.

The Medical Virtualist—Time for a New Specialty
Nochomovitz M, Sharma R.
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This Viewpoint proposes a new specialty for medical virtualists, physicians trained and certified in the delivery of health care services through web-based services, videoconferencing, and social media.

Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock
Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour C, et al.
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This article presents updated definitions of and clinical criteria for diagnosing sepsis and septic shock based on recommendations from an expert task force.

Increasing the Transparency of Conflict of Interest Disclosures in Nutrition Research
Ioannidis JA, Trepanowski JF.
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In this Viewpoint, John Ioannidis argues that nutrition researchers should be required to disclose relevant dietary advocacy, activism, practices, and personal preferences given indirect financial benefits they may realize from offering dietary advice and the relative ease with which they can promote their personal beliefs in diet through science.

Better Ways to Assess Presidential Fitness
Voelker R.
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This Medical News article examines a proposal to create a nonpartisan panel that would evaluate US presidents’ mental and physical fitness to serve.

Is Loneliness a Risk Factor for Early Death?
Rubin R.
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This Medical News article discusses the health implications of loneliness and interventions to build emotional support.

The Revised Declaration of Geneva: The Modern-Day Physician’s Pledge
Parsa-Parsi R.
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This Viewpoint describes the 2017 revision of the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Geneva, which asks physicians to pledge themselves to the highest standards of ethics and practice in the interests of their patients and the medical profession.

The Potential Adverse Influence of Physicians’ Words
Barsky AJ.
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This Viewpoint discusses how physicians’ choice of words can amplify patients’ symptoms and distress and suggests approaches to communication in common situations that could reduce iatrogenic nocebo effects.

Effects of GM-CSF on Walking Performance in Patients With PAD
McDermott MM, Ferrucci L, Tian L, et al.
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This 2 × 2 factorial trial compared the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) vs placebo and of supervised treadmill exercise vs education control on 6-minute walk distance at 12 weeks in patients with peripheral artery disease.

From Sgt. Pepper to Dreamachines: My Odyssey With William S. Burroughs
Lees AJ.
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This Arts and Medicine essay explores the relevance of writer and artist William S. Burroughs to clinical medicine, and his importance to the author’s career as a Parkinson disease researcher.

Death by Gun Violence—A Public Health Crisis
Bauchner H, Rivara FP, Bonow RO, et al.
ver resumen
The shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, that left 59 people dead, 10 times that number wounded, and thousands of people with the psychological distress from being present at the scene during and after the massacre has once again raised the issue of what we as a nation can and should do about guns. The solution lies in not just focusing on Las Vegas and the hundreds of other mass shootings that have occurred in the United States in the last 14 months, but rather to underscore that on average almost 100 people die each day in the United States from gun violence. The 36 252 deaths from firearms in the United States in 2015 exceeded the number of deaths from motor vehicle traffic crashes that year (36 161). That same year, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 5 people died from terrorism. Since 1968, more individuals in the United States have died from gun violence than in battle during all the wars the country has fought since its inception.

The Promise and Challenges of CAR-T Gene Therapy
Kuehn BM.
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This Medical News article discusses the promise and challenges of CAR-T therapies.

Factors Associated With Increases in US Health Care Spending, 1996-2013
Dieleman JL, Squires E, Bui AL, et al.
ver resumen
This study uses data from the 2013 US Disease Expenditure project and the 2015 Global Burden of Disease study to evaluate associations between population, disease, and service utilization and price variables and changes in health care spending between 1996 and 2013.

Association Between Diet and Cardiometabolic Mortality in the United States
Micha R, Peñalvo JL, Cudhea F, et al.
ver resumen
This nutritional epidemiology study uses NHANES data to estimate associations between dietary components and mortality due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes among US adults between 2002 and 2012.

Encouraging New Uses for Old Drugs
Sachs RE, Ginsburg PB, Goldman DP.
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This Viewpoint discusses ways in which government agencies could encourage discovery of new indications for older, off-patent drugs.

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