JACC último número

JACC último número 2017-01-13T10:01:08+00:00

Project Description

JACC - Último número

JACC Instructions for Authors
21/5/2018
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Smartwatch Algorithm for Automated Detection of Atrial Fibrillation
21/5/2018
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AbstractBackground

The Kardia Band (KB) is a novel technology that enables patients to record a rhythm strip using an Apple Watch (Apple, Cupertino, California). The band is paired with an app providing automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the KB could accurately differentiate sinus rhythm (SR) from AF compared with physician-interpreted 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and KB recordings.

Methods

Consecutive patients with AF presenting for cardioversion (CV) were enrolled. Patients underwent pre-CV ECG along with a KB recording. If CV was performed, a post-CV ECG was obtained along with a KB recording. The KB interpretations were compared to physician-reviewed ECGs. The KB recordings were reviewed by blinded electrophysiologists and compared to ECG interpretations. Sensitivity, specificity, and K coefficient were measured.

Results

A total of 100 patients were enrolled (age 68 ± 11 years). Eight patients did not undergo CV as they were found to be in SR. There were 169 simultaneous ECG and KB recordings. Fifty-seven were noninterpretable by the KB. Compared with ECG, the KB interpreted AF with 93% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and a K coefficient of 0.77. Physician interpretation of KB recordings demonstrated 99% sensitivity, 83% specificity, and a K coefficient of 0.83. Of the 57 noninterpretable KB recordings, interpreting electrophysiologists diagnosed AF with 100% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and a K coefficient of 0.74. Among 113 cases where KB and physician readings of the same recording were interpretable, agreement was excellent (K coefficient = 0.88).

Conclusions

The KB algorithm for AF detection supported by physician review can accurately differentiate AF from SR. This technology can help screen patients prior to elective CV and avoid unnecessary procedures.


Smartwatches in the Fight Against Atrial Fibrillation: The Little Watch That Could
21/5/2018
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Anti-Inflammatory Therapy With Canakinumab for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes
21/5/2018
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AbstractBackground

Subclinical inflammation mediated in part by interleukin (IL)-1β participates in peripheral insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion.

Objectives

The authors tested the hypothesis that the IL-1β inhibitor canakinumab reduces incident diabetes.

Methods

The authors randomized 10,061 patients with prior myocardial infarction and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥2 mg/l to placebo or canakinumab at doses of 50 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg subcutaneously once every 3 months. The authors tested the effects of canakinumab on major cardiovascular events in patients with and without diabetes at baseline, and evaluated as a pre-specified analysis whether canakinumab would reduce the risk of adjudicated cases of new-onset type 2 diabetes among those with protocol-defined pre-diabetes at trial entry. The authors also evaluated the effect of canakinumab on fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with and without established diabetes.

Results

Of the participants, 4,057 (40.3%) had baseline diabetes, 4,960 (49.3%) had pre-diabetes, and 1,044 (10.4%) had normal glucose levels. Among those without diabetes, increasing tertiles of hsCRP at baseline associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes during the median follow-up period of 3.7 years (incidence rates 3.2, 4.1, and 4.4 per 100 person-years; p = 0.003). Canakinumab 150 mg as compared with placebo had similar magnitude effects on major cardiovascular event rates among those with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70 to 1.03), pre-diabetes (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.06), and normoglycemia (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.35). Despite large reductions in hsCRP and IL-6, canakinumab did not reduce the incidence of new-onset diabetes, with rates per 100 person-years in the placebo, 50 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg canakinumab groups of 4.2, 4.2, 4.4, and 4.1, respectively (log-rank p = 0.84). The HR comparing all canakinumab doses to placebo was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.19; p = 0.82). Canakinumab reduced HbA1c during the first 6 to 9 months of treatment, but no consistent long-term benefits on HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose were observed.

Conclusions

Although IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab had similar effects on major cardiovascular events among those with and without diabetes, treatment over a median period of 3.7 years did not reduce incident diabetes. (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study [CANTOS]; NCT01327846)


Targeting Inflammation in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Insights From CANTOS
21/5/2018
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Inhibition of Interleukin-1{beta} by Canakinumab and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
21/5/2018
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AbstractBackground

Inflammation contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD), in part mediated through activation of interleukin (IL)-1β by the NLRP3 inflammasome within the kidney. This process also likely contributes to the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with nephropathy.

Objectives

The authors hypothesized that canakinumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting IL-1β, might reduce cardiovascular event rates and improve renal function among post-myocardial infarction patients with CKD.

Methods

Stable post-myocardial infarction patients with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥ 2mg/l were randomly allocated to placebo or to 1 of 3 doses of canakinumab (50, 150, or 300 mg) given subcutaneously once every 3 months. Participants were followed for incident myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina requiring urgent revascularization, cardiovascular death, or death from any cause over a median follow-up period of 3.7 years (maximum 5 years). All patients additionally had serial monitoring of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatinine, the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (uACR), and were monitored for adverse renal and urinary events.

Results

Of 10,061 participants, 1,875 (18.6%) had baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. These moderate CKD patients had higher incidence rates for major adverse vascular events compared with those with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (6.92 vs. 4.13 per 100 person-years; p < 0.0001). Random allocation to canakinumab reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events among those with CKD (hazard ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.00; p = 0.05) with the largest cardiovascular benefits accruing among those who achieved on-treatment hsCRP levels below 2 mg/l measured after taking the first dose (hazard ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.86; p = 0.0015). Comparable effects were observed among those with baseline albuminuria or diabetes. Canakinumab had neither clinically meaningful benefits nor substantive harms with respect to serial measures of eGFR, creatinine, the uACR, or reported adverse renal events during trial follow-up.

Conclusions

IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab reduces major adverse cardiovascular event rates among high-risk atherosclerosis patients with CKD, particularly among those with a robust anti-inflammatory response to initial treatment. These cardiovascular benefits accrued with no adverse clinical renal events. (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study [CANTOS]; NCT01327846)


Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: Potential for Targeting Inflammation With Canakinumab
21/5/2018
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Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Heart Disease: The CARPREG II Study
21/5/2018
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AbstractBackground

Identifying women at high risk is an important aspect of care for women with heart disease.

Objectives

This study sought to: 1) examine cardiac complications during pregnancy and their temporal trends; and 2) derive a risk stratification index.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled consecutive pregnant women with heart disease and determined their cardiac outcomes during pregnancy. Temporal trends in complications were examined. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of cardiac complications and these were incorporated into a new risk index.

Results

In total, 1,938 pregnancies were included. Cardiac complications occurred in 16% of pregnancies and were primarily related to arrhythmias and heart failure. Although the overall rates of cardiac complications during pregnancy did not change over the years, the frequency of pulmonary edema decreased (8% from 1994 to 2001 vs. 4% from 2001 to 2014; p value = 0.012). Ten predictors of maternal cardiac complications were identified: 5 general predictors (prior cardiac events or arrhythmias, poor functional class or cyanosis, high-risk valve disease/left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, systemic ventricular dysfunction, no prior cardiac interventions); 4 lesion-specific predictors (mechanical valves, high-risk aortopathies, pulmonary hypertension, coronary artery disease); and 1 delivery of care predictor (late pregnancy assessment). These 10 predictors were incorporated into a new risk index (CARPREG II [Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy Study]).

Conclusions

Pregnancy in women with heart disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity, although mortality is rare. Prediction of maternal cardiac complications in women with heart disease is enhanced by integration of general, lesion-specific, and delivery of care variables.


How to Predict Pregnancy Risk in an Individual Woman With Heart Disease
21/5/2018
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Trends in Long-Term Mortality After Congenital Heart Surgery
21/5/2018
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AbstractBackground

Congenital heart surgery has improved the survival of patients with even the most complex defects, but the long-term survival after these procedures has not been fully described.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival of patients (age <21 years) who were operated on for congenital heart defects (CHDs).

Methods

This study used the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium data, a U.S.-based, multicenter registry of pediatric cardiac surgery. Survival analysis included 35,998 patients who survived their first congenital heart surgery at <21 years of age and had adequate identifiers for linkage with the National Death Index through 2014. Survival was compared to that in the general population using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs).

Results

After a median follow-up of 18 years (645,806 person-years), 3,191 deaths occurred with an overall SMR of 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0 to 8.7). The 15-year SMR decreased from 12.7 (95% CI: 11.9 to 13.6) in the early era (1982 to 1992) to 10.0 (95% CI: 9.3 to 10.8) in the late era (1998 to 2003). The SMR remained elevated even for mild forms of CHD such as patent ductus arteriosus (SMR 4.5) and atrial septal defects (SMR 4.9). The largest decreases in SMR occurred for patients with transposition of great arteries (early: 11.0 vs. late: 3.8; p < 0.05), complete atrioventricular canal (31.3 vs. 15.3; p < 0.05), and single ventricle (53.7 vs. 31.3; p < 0.05).

Conclusions

In this large U.S. cohort, long-term mortality after congenital heart surgery was elevated across all forms of CHD. Survival has improved over time, particularly for severe defects with significant changes in their management strategy, but still lags behind the general population.


Public Health Approach to Decrease Mortality for Congenital Heart Defects: Dying Too Soon
21/5/2018
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Antithrombotic Therapy for Peripheral Artery Disease: Recent Advances
21/5/2018
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Abstract

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects over 200 million people globally and is a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and disability due to limb loss. Although secondary prevention with antithrombotic therapy is a mainstay of treatment to prevent adverse cardiovascular events, PAD patients are often undertreated with antithrombotic agents. Furthermore, there is a paucity of high-quality data from randomized controlled trials of PAD patients, leading to wide variations in clinical practice and guideline recommendations. Recently, there have been important advances that have further increased the number of antiplatelet and anticoagulant choices potentially available for patients with PAD. In this context, this paper aims to summarize the current available evidence for the safety and efficacy of various antithrombotic agents in PAD, and discuss how to integrate this emerging evidence into actual clinical practice. An evidenced-based approach to PAD patients is essential to achieve optimal outcomes, weighing cardiovascular and limb benefits against bleeding risks.


Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Evolving Therapeutic Approaches for Operable and Inoperable Disease
21/5/2018
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Abstract

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), a rare consequence of an acute pulmonary embolism, is a disease that is underdiagnosed, and surgical pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) remains the preferred therapy. However, determination of operability is multifactorial and can be challenging. There is growing excitement for the percutaneous treatment of inoperable CTEPH with data from multiple centers around the world showing the clinical feasibility of balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Riociguat remains the only approved medical therapy for CTEPH patients deemed inoperable or with persistent pulmonary hypertension after PTE. We recommend that expert multidisciplinary CTEPH teams be developed at individual institutions. Additionally, optimal and standardized techniques for balloon pulmonary angioplasty need to be developed along with dedicated interventional equipment and appropriate training standards. In the meantime, the percutaneous revascularization option is appropriate for patients deemed inoperable in combination with targeted medical therapy, or those who have failed to benefit from surgery.


Impact of C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Artery Calcium on Benefit Observed With Atorvastatin
21/5/2018
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SAVR Versus TAVR Outcomes in Patients With Prior History of Stroke
21/5/2018
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Cardiovascular Risk Models and Statin Therapy
21/5/2018
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Reply: Cardiovascular Risk Models and Statin Therapy
21/5/2018
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Missed Opportunities in Cardiac Arrest: The Promise of 24/7 Ongoing On-Site Interventional Cardiologist Availability
21/5/2018
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Off-Hours and In-Hospital Mortality: Lower Resources or Higher Severity?
21/5/2018
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Reply: Lower Survival for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests During Nights and Weekends
21/5/2018
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