JACC - Último número
Recent studies reported left ventricular (LV) fibrosis in patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR) thought to be principally due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP).
This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics, and prognostic implications of LV fibrosis in a large cohort of primary MR patients with and without MVP using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
Patients referred for contrast CMR assessment of chronic primary MR were enrolled and underwent comprehensive assessment of cardiac remodeling, severity of MR, and LV replacement fibrosis. Primary MR patients were stratified into: an MVP group if there was >2 mm mitral leaflet displacement on cine-CMR, or a non-MVP group. Patients were followed for arrhythmic events (sudden cardiac death, aborted sudden cardiac arrest, and sustained or inducible ventricular arrhythmia).
A total of 356 primary MR patients (177 MVP and 179 non-MVP) were enrolled. LV fibrosis was more prevalent in the MVP group than the non-MVP group (36.7% vs. 6.7%; p < 0.001). The presence of MVP had the strongest association (odds ratio: 6.82; p < 0.001) with LV fibrosis even after adjustment for clinical variables, measures of cardiac remodeling, and MR severity. During follow-up (median 1,354 days), MVP patients with LV fibrosis had the highest event rate for arrhythmic events.
In primary MR patients, LV fibrosis is more prevalent in MVP than non-MVP, suggesting a unique pathophysiology beyond volume overload in MVP. LV fibrosis in primary MR may represent a risk marker of arrhythmic events.
It is unclear whether edoxaban shows better risk reduction of ischemic stroke, bleeding, and all-cause mortality than warfarin in Asian patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
This study compared the effectiveness and safety of edoxaban with those of warfarin in a Korean population with AF.
Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we included new users of edoxaban and warfarin in patients with AF from January 2014 to December 2016 (n = 4,200 on edoxaban, and n = 31,565 on warfarin) and analyzed the risk of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), hospitalization for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, hospitalization for major bleeding, and all-cause death. The propensity score matching method was used to balance covariates across edoxaban and warfarin users.
We compared a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of patients with AF who were new users of edoxaban and warfarin (n = 4,061 and n = 12,183, respectively). Baseline characteristics were balanced between the 2 groups (median age 72 years; median CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, transient ischemic attack, or thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65–74 years, sex category (female)] score 3). Edoxaban users had a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.693; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.487 to 0.959), ICH (HR: 0.407; 95% CI: 0.182 to 0.785), hospitalization for GI bleeding (HR: 0.597; 95% CI: 0.363 to 0.930), hospitalization for major bleeding (HR: 0.532; 95% CI: 0.352 to 0.773), and all-cause death (HR: 0.716; 95% CI: 0.549 to 0.918) than warfarin users. All subgroups (age, sex, CHA2DS2-VASc score, renal function, edoxaban dose) showed better clinical outcomes with edoxaban than with warfarin.
In this real-world Asian population with AF, edoxaban might be associated with reduced risk of ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and all-cause death compared with warfarin. These benefits were consistent across various high-risk subgroups.
Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Preserved Systolic Function13/8/2018
A high proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have evidence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).
This study sought to assess the incremental prognostic utility of LGE in patients with HCM.
We studied 1,423 consecutive low-/intermediate-risk patients with HCM (age ≥18 years) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (mean age 66 ± 14 years, 60% men) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) (including dimensions and LV outflow tract gradients) and CMR (including LGE as a % of LV mass) at our center between January 2008 and December 2015. The primary composite endpoint was sudden cardiac death (SCD) and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge. The percent 5-year SCD risk score was calculated.
The mean 5-year SCD risk score was 2.3 ± 2.0. Mean maximal LV outflow tract gradient (TTE) was 70 ± 55 mm Hg (median 74 mm Hg [interquartile range (IQR): 10 to 67 mm Hg]); indexed LV mass and LGE (both on CMR) were 91 ± 10 g/m2 and 8.4 ± 12% (IQR: 0% to 19%); 50% had LGE on CMR. Of these, 458 were nonobstructive and 965 were obstructive (of which 686 were underwent myectomy). At 4.7 ± 2.0 years of follow-up, 60 (4%) met the composite endpoint. On quadratic spline analysis, LGE ≥15% was associated with increased risk of composite events. In the obstructive subgroup, on competing risk regression analysis, ≥15% LGE (subhazard ratio: 3.04 [95% confidence interval: 1.48 to 6.10]) was associated with a higher rate and myectomy (subhazard ratio: 0.44 [95% confidence interval: 0.20 to 0.76]) was associated with a lower rate of composite endpoints (both p < 0.01). Similarly, sequential addition of LGE ≥15% and myectomy to % 5-year SCD risk score improved the log likelihood ratios from –227.85 to –219.14 (chi-square 17) and to –215.14 (chi-square 8; both p < 0.01). Association of %LGE with composite events was similar even in myectomy and nonobstructive subgroups.
In low-/intermediate-risk adult patients with HCM (obstructive, myectomy, and nonobstructive subgroups) with preserved systolic function, %LGE was significantly associated with a higher rate of composite endpoint, providing incremental prognostic utility.
Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive.
This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers.
Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions.
Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients.
Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621)
Deficiency of GATA3-Positive Macrophages Improves Cardiac Function Following Myocardial Infarction or Pressure Overload Hypertrophy13/8/2018
Macrophages are highly plastic cells that play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
This study investigated the role of GATA3-positive macrophages in modulating cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) or in response to pressure overload hypertrophy.
Myeloid-specific GATA3-deficient (mGATA3KO) mice were generated, MI or pressure overload was induced, and cardiac function was determined by echocardiography. GATA3-sufficient Cre mice were used as a control. Immunohistochemical staining, flow cytometry, MILLIPLEX Mouse Cytokine/Chemokine Assay, cultured macrophages, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot were used to determine the role of GATA3 in macrophages.
GATA3-positive macrophages rapidly accumulated in the infarcted region of the myocardium after acute MI. Deficiency of GATA3-positive macrophages led to a significant improvement of cardiac function in response to acute MI or pressure overload hypertrophy compared with the control mice. This improvement was associated with the presence of a large number of proinflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes/macrophages and fewer reparative Ly6Clo macrophages in the myocardium of mGATA3KO mice compared with control mice. Analysis of serum proteins from the 2 mouse genotypes revealed no major changes in the profile of serum growth factors and cytokines between the 2 mice genotypes before and after MI. GATA3 was found to be specifically and transiently induced by interleukin 4 in cultured macrophages through activity of the proximal promoter, whereas the distal promoter remained silent. In addition, the absence of GATA3 in macrophages markedly attenuated arginase-1 expression in cultured macrophages.
We demonstrated that the presence of GATA3-positive macrophages adversely affects remodeling of the myocardium in response to ischemia or pressure overload, whereas the absence of these macrophages led to a significant improvement in cardiac function. Targeting of signaling pathways that lead to the expression of GATA3 in macrophages may have favorable cardiac outcomes.
Reduction in excess calories and improvement in dietary composition may prevent many primary and secondary cardiovascular events. Current guidelines recommend diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes; moderate in low-fat dairy and seafood; and low in processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, refined grains, and sodium. Supplementation can be useful for some people but cannot replace a good diet. Factors that influence individuals to consume a low-quality diet are myriad and include lack of knowledge, lack of availability, high cost, time scarcity, social and cultural norms, marketing of poor-quality foods, and palatability. Governments should focus on cardiovascular disease as a global threat and enact policies that will reach all levels of society and create a food environment wherein healthy foods are accessible, affordable, and desirable. Health professionals should be proficient in basic nutritional knowledge to promote a sustainable pattern of healthful eating for cardiovascular disease prevention for both healthy individuals and those at higher risk.
Traditional right ventricular (RV) pacing for the management of bradyarrhythmias has been pursued successfully for decades, although there remains debate regarding optimal pacing site with respect to both hemodynamic and clinical outcomes. The deleterious effects of long-term RV apical pacing have been well recognized. This has generated interest in approaches providing more physiological stimulation, namely, His bundle pacing (HBP). This paper reviews the anatomy of the His bundle, early clinical observations, and current approaches to permanent HBP. By stimulating the His-Purkinje network, HBP engages electrical activation of both ventricles and may avoid marked dyssynchrony. Recent studies have also demonstrated the potential of HBP in patients with underlying left bundle branch block and cardiomyopathy. HBP holds promise as an attractive mode to achieve physiological pacing. Widespread adaptation of this technique is dependent on enhancements in technology, as well as further validation of efficacy in large randomized clinical trials.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Effect on Post-Myocardial Infarction ST2 Levels for Heart Failure and Myocardial Fibrosis13/8/2018
Infection-Induced Humoral Autoimmunity: A Missing Link in the Interplay Between Pathogens, Dyslipidemia, and Innate Immunity?13/8/2018
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