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JACC Instructions for Authors
19/2/2018
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Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Improves Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes and Left Ventricular Dysfunction
19/2/2018
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AbstractBackground

The role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) has been established by large trials; however, these trials largely excluded patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with PCI or CABG leads to improved outcomes in patients with DM, CAD, and LVD.

Methods

In this propensity-matched study, outcomes were compared for patients with CAD, DM, and LVD treated with PCI or CABG between 2004 and 2016. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, defined as the composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome.

Results

PCI compared with CABG was associated with a higher risk for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in cohorts with ejection fraction (EF) 35% to 49% (p < 0.001) and <35% (p < 0.001). Treatment with PCI was associated with an increased risk for death in both the EF 35% to 49% and the EF <35% cohorts. Stroke rate did not differ between PCI and CABG in either EF cohort. PCI was associated with an increased rate of MI in the EF <35% cohort, and repeat revascularization occurred more frequently in patients treated with PCI in both the EF 35% to 49% cohort and the EF <35% cohort.

Conclusions

At long-term follow-up, patients with CAD, DM, and LVD treated with CABG exhibited a significantly lower incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and better long-term survival over PCI, without a higher risk for stroke.


CABG or PCI for Diabetic Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Closing in on the Truth?
19/2/2018
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Safety and Effectiveness of Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease
19/2/2018
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AbstractBackground

Limited data are available on the relative performances between different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) for obstructive left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD).

Objectives

This study sought to compare effectiveness and safety profiles of various second-generation DES for LMCAD in real-world clinical practice.

Methods

Among 4,470 patients in 3, multicenter, prospective registries (IRIS-DES [Interventional Cardiology Research Incorporation Society-Drug-Eluting Stents] registry, the IRIS-MAIN [Interventional Cardiology Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization] registry, and the PRECOMBAT [PREmier of Randomized COMparison of Bypass Surgery versus AngioplasTy Using Drug-Eluting Stent in Patients with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease] study) treated between July 2007 and July 2015, the authors identified 2,692 patients with significant LMCAD who received second-generation DES; 1,254 with cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-EES), 232 with biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BP-BES), 616 with platinum-chromium EES (PtCr-EES), and 590 with Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stent (Re-ZES). The primary outcome was target-vessel failure.

Results

The observed 3-year rates of target-vessel failure were not significantly different for the different types of DES (16.7% for the CoCr-EES, 13.2% for the BP-BES, 18.7% for the PtCr-EES, and 14.7% for the Re-ZES; p = 0.15). In multiple treatment propensity score analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for target-vessel failure were similar in between-group comparisons of the different DES, except for the PtCr-EES versus the BP-BES (reference; HR: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 2.54; p = 0.046). There were no significant differences in risk of composite of all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, or any revascularization and its individual components according to the different types of DES. Although the 3-year incidence of stent thrombosis was considerably low (≤1.0%) for all types of DES, between-group differences were observed, generally favoring the EES platforms.

Conclusions

In this pooled analysis of 3 prospective registries involving unrestricted use of various second-generation DES for LMCAD, we found no significant between-group differences in 3-year risk of target-vessel failure, except for a higher risk of primary outcome with PtCr-EES compared to BP-BES. (Evaluation of the First, Second, and New Drug-Eluting Stents in Routine Clinical Practice [IRIS-DES]; NCT01186133)


Which Stent Should We Select for the Left Main?
19/2/2018
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Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Cardiogenic Shock
19/2/2018
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AbstractBackground

Recent trials demonstrated a benefit of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for noninfarct-related artery (non-IRA) stenosis over IRA-only PCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) multivessel disease. However, evidence is limited in patients with cardiogenic shock.

Objectives

This study investigated the prognostic impact of multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI multivessel disease presenting with cardiogenic shock, using the nationwide, multicenter, prospective KAMIR-NIH (Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction-National Institutes of Health) registry.

Methods

Among 13,104 consecutive patients enrolled in the KAMIR-NIH registry, we selected patients with STEMI with multivessel disease presenting with cardiogenic shock and who underwent primary PCI. Primary outcome was 1-year all-cause death, and secondary outcomes included patient-oriented composite outcome (a composite of all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, and any repeat revascularization) and its individual components.

Results

A total of 659 patients were treated by multivessel PCI (n = 260) or IRA-only PCI (n = 399) strategy. The risk of all-cause death and non-IRA repeat revascularization was significantly lower in the multivessel PCI group than in the IRA-only PCI group (21.3% vs. 31.7%; hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.82; p = 0.001; and 6.7% vs. 8.2%; hazard ratio: 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.90; p = 0.028, respectively). Results were consistent after multivariable regression, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline differences. In a multivariable model, multivessel PCI was independently associated with reduced risk of 1-year all-cause death and patient-oriented composite outcome.

Conclusions

Of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease with cardiogenic shock, multivessel PCI was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause death and non-IRA repeat revascularization. Our data suggest that multivessel PCI for complete revascularization is a reasonable strategy to improve outcomes in patients with STEMI with cardiogenic shock.


Revascularization Strategies in Cardiogenic Shock Patients With MVD: For Now, Keep it Simple
19/2/2018
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Reverse Myocardial Remodeling Following Valve Replacement in Patients With Aortic Stenosis
19/2/2018
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AbstractBackground

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, a key process in human cardiac disease, results from cellular (hypertrophy) and extracellular matrix expansion (interstitial fibrosis).

Objectives

This study sought to investigate whether human myocardial interstitial fibrosis in aortic stenosis (AS) is plastic and can regress.

Methods

Patients with symptomatic, severe AS (n = 181; aortic valve area index 0.4 ± 0.1 cm2/m2) were assessed pre–aortic valve replacement (AVR) by echocardiography (AS severity, diastology), cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) (for volumes, function, and focal or diffuse fibrosis), biomarkers (N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T), and the 6-min walk test. CMR was used to measure the extracellular volume fraction (ECV), thereby deriving matrix volume (LV mass x ECV) and cell volume (LV mass x [1 – ECV]). Biopsy excluded occult bystander disease. Assessment was repeated at 1 year post-AVR.

Results

At 1 year post-AVR in 116 pacemaker-free survivors (age 70 ± 10 years; 54% male), mean valve gradient had improved (48 ± 16 mm Hg to 12 ± 6 mm Hg; p < 0.001), and indexed LV mass had regressed by 19% (88 ± 26 g/m2 to 71 ± 19 g/m2; p < 0.001). Focal fibrosis by CMR late gadolinium enhancement did not change, but ECV increased (28.2 ± 2.9% to 29.9 ± 4.0%; p < 0.001): this was the result of a 16% reduction in matrix volume (25 ± 9 ml/m2 to 21 ± 7 ml/m2; p < 0.001) but a proportionally greater 22% reduction in cell volume (64 ± 18 ml/m2 to 50 ± 13 ml/m2; p < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by improvement in diastolic function, N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide, 6-min walk test results, and New York Heart Association functional class.

Conclusions

Post-AVR, focal fibrosis does not resolve, but diffuse fibrosis and myocardial cellular hypertrophy regress. Regression is accompanied by structural and functional improvements suggesting that human diffuse fibrosis is plastic, measurable by CMR and a potential therapeutic target. (Regression of Myocardial Fibrosis After Aortic Valve Replacement; NCT02174471)


Revisiting Reverse Remodeling After Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis
19/2/2018
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Tet2-Mediated Clonal Hematopoiesis Accelerates Heart Failure Through a Mechanism Involving the IL-1{beta}/NLRP3 Inflammasome
19/2/2018
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AbstractBackground

Recent studies have shown that hematopoietic stem cells can undergo clonal expansion secondary to somatic mutations in leukemia-related genes, thus leading to an age-dependent accumulation of mutant leukocytes in the blood. This somatic mutation-related clonal hematopoiesis is common in healthy older individuals, but it has been associated with an increased incidence of future cardiovascular disease. The epigenetic regulator TET2 is frequently mutated in blood cells of individuals exhibiting clonal hematopoiesis.

Objectives

This study investigated whether Tet2 mutations within hematopoietic cells can contribute to heart failure in 2 models of cardiac injury.

Methods

Heart failure was induced in mice by pressure overload, achieved by transverse aortic constriction or chronic ischemia induced by the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Competitive bone marrow transplantation strategies with Tet2-deficient cells were used to mimic TET2 mutation-driven clonal hematopoiesis. Alternatively, Tet2 was specifically ablated in myeloid cells using Cre recombinase expressed from the LysM promoter.

Results

In both experimental heart failure models, hematopoietic or myeloid Tet2 deficiency worsened cardiac remodeling and function, in parallel with increased interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) expression. Treatment with a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor protected against the development of heart failure and eliminated the differences in cardiac parameters between Tet2-deficient and wild-type mice.

Conclusions

Tet2 deficiency in hematopoietic cells is associated with greater cardiac dysfunction in murine models of heart failure as a result of elevated IL-1β signaling. These data suggest that individuals with TET2-mediated clonal hematopoiesis may be at greater risk of developing heart failure and respond better to IL-1β–NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.


Clonal Hematopoiesis Wages War on the Myocardium
19/2/2018
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Editor-in-Chiefs Top Picks From 2017
19/2/2018
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Each week, I record audio summaries for every article in JACC, as well as an issue summary. While this process has been time-consuming, I have become quite familiar with every paper that we publish. Thus, I personally select papers (both original investigations and review articles) from 15 distinct specialties each year for your review. In addition to my personal choices, I have included manuscripts that have been the most accessed or downloaded on our websites, as well as those selected by the JACC Editorial Board members. In order to present the full breadth of this important research in a consumable fashion, we will present these manuscripts in this issue of JACC.

The highlights comprise the following sections: Basic & Translational Research, Cardiac Failure, Cardiomyopathies/Myocardial & Pericardial Diseases, Cardio-oncology, Congenital Heart Disease, Coronary Disease & Interventions, CVD Prevention & Health Promotion, Hypertension, Imaging, Metabolic & Lipid Disorders, Rhythm Disorders, Valvular Heart Disease, and Vascular Medicine (1–110).


ACC Appropriate Use Criteria Methodology: 2018 Update: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force
19/2/2018
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State of the States 2017
19/2/2018
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Effect of NT-proBNP-Guided Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction
19/2/2018
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PCSK9 as a Positive Modulator of Platelet Activation
19/2/2018
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Effect of Cocaine on Coronary Microvasculature
19/2/2018
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