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Double Kissing Crush Versus Provisional Stenting for Left Main Distal Bifurcation Lesions: DKCRUSH-V Randomized Trial20/11/2017
Provisional stenting (PS) is the most common technique used to treat distal left main (LM) bifurcation lesions in patients with unprotected LM coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The double kissing (DK) crush planned 2-stent technique has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in non-LM bifurcations compared with PS, and in LM bifurcations compared with culotte stenting, but has never been compared with PS in LM bifurcation lesions.
The authors sought to determine whether a planned DK crush 2-stent technique is superior to PS for patients with true distal LM bifurcation lesions.
The authors randomized 482 patients from 26 centers in 5 countries with true distal LM bifurcation lesions (Medina 1,1,1 or 0,1,1) to PS (n = 242) or DK crush stenting (n = 240). The primary endpoint was the 1-year composite rate of target lesion failure (TLF): cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Routine 13-month angiographic follow-up was scheduled after ascertainment of the primary endpoint.
TLF within 1 year occurred in 26 patients (10.7%) assigned to PS, and in 12 patients (5.0%) assigned to DK crush (hazard ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.85; p = 0.02). Compared with PS, DK crush also resulted in lower rates of target vessel myocardial infarction I (2.9% vs. 0.4%; p = 0.03) and definite or probable stent thrombosis (3.3% vs. 0.4%; p = 0.02). Clinically driven target lesion revascularization (7.9% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.06) and angiographic restenosis within the LM complex (14.6% vs. 7.1%; p = 0.10) also tended to be less frequent with DK crush compared with PS. There was no significant difference in cardiac death between the groups.
In the present multicenter randomized trial, percutaneous coronary intervention of true distal LM bifurcation lesions using a planned DK crush 2-stent strategy resulted in a lower rate of TLF at 1 year than a PS strategy. (Double Kissing and Double Crush Versus Provisional T Stenting Technique for the Treatment of Unprotected Distal Left Main True Bifurcation Lesions: A Randomized, International, Multi-Center Clinical Trial [DKCRUSH-V]; ChiCTR-TRC-11001213)
DK-Crush Should Become Preferred Strategy for Treating Unprotected LM Bifurcation Lesions: No Pain, No Gain20/11/2017
Lifelong oral anticoagulation, either with warfarin or a non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), is indicated for stroke prevention in most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Emerging evidence suggests that NOACs may be associated with better renal outcomes than warfarin.
This study aimed to compare 4 oral anticoagulant agents (apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and warfarin) for their effects on 4 renal outcomes: ≥30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), doubling of the serum creatinine level, acute kidney injury (AKI), and kidney failure.
Using a large U.S. administrative database linked to laboratory results, the authors identified 9,769 patients with nonvalvular AF who started taking an oral anticoagulant agent between October 1, 2010 and April 30, 2016. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance more than 60 baseline characteristics among patients in the 4 drug cohorts. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed in the weighted population to compare oral anticoagulant agents.
The cumulative risk at the end of 2 years for each outcome was 24.4%, 4.0%, 14.8%, and 1.7% for ≥30% decline in eGFR, doubling of serum creatinine, AKI, and kidney failure, respectively. When the 3 NOACs were pooled, they were associated with reduced risks of ≥30% decline in eGFR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66 to 0.89; p < 0.001), doubling of serum creatinine (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.95; p = 0.03), and AKI (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.81; p < 0.001) compared with warfarin. When comparing each NOAC with warfarin, dabigatran was associated with lower risks of ≥30% decline in eGFR and AKI; rivaroxaban was associated with lower risks of ≥30% decline in eGFR, doubling of serum creatinine, and AKI; however, apixaban did not have a statistically significant relationship with any of the renal outcomes.
Renal function decline is common among patients with AF treated with oral anticoagulant agents. NOACs, particularly dabigatran and rivaroxaban, may be associated with lower risks of adverse renal outcomes than warfarin.
Another Dimension of Safety in the Prescription of Anticoagulants for Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation20/11/2017
Use of Fondaparinux Off-Label or Approved Anticoagulants for Management of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia20/11/2017
Life-threatening heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is treated with the alternative nonheparin anticoagulants argatroban, lepirudin, or danaparoid. Frequently, the pentasaccharide fondaparinux is used off-label.
The authors sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of the different anticoagulants for treating HIT.
In a national, multicenter registry study, hospitalized patients who were diagnosed with HIT, an at least intermediate clinical HIT-risk (4Ts score ≥4 points), and received treatment with ≥1 dose of the aforementioned anticoagulants were included. Main outcome measures were the incidences of HIT-specific complications (thromboembolic venous/arterial events, amputations, recurrent/persistent thrombocytopenia, skin lesions) and bleedings.
Of 195 patients, 46 (23.6%), 4 (2.1%), 61 (31.3%), and 84 (43.1%) had been treated first-line with argatroban, lepirudin, danaparoid, and fondaparinux, respectively. The composite endpoint of HIT-specific complications (thromboembolic events, amputation, skin necrosis) occurred in 11.7% of patients treated with approved alternative anticoagulation and in 0.0% of fondaparinux-treated patients. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rates were 14.4% during approved alternative anticoagulation and 0.0% during fondaparinux treatment. Bleeding complications occurred in alternatively anticoagulated patients and in fondaparinux-treated patients in 6.3% and 4.8%, respectively. Post hoc analysis of clinical and laboratory features confirmed "true" HIT in at least 74 of 195 (38.0%) patients; 35 of 74 (47.3%) were treated with fondaparinux.
Fondaparinux is effective and safe in suspected acute HIT; no HIT-specific complications occurred in the fondaparinux-treated patients, even among those with a high clinical HIT probability. Further data from randomized controlled trials are urgently needed because lepirudin was recalled from the market; danaparoid access has been limited and is not approved in the United States; and argatroban is contraindicated in patients with impaired liver function, and activated partial thromboplastin time confounding may interfere with monitoring. (Retrospective Registry of Patients With Acute Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Type II; NCT01304238)
Inhaled Xenon Attenuates Myocardial Damage in Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The Xe-Hypotheca Trial20/11/2017
The authors previously reported that inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia attenuates brain white matter injury in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
A pre-defined secondary objective was to assess the effect of inhaled xenon on myocardial ischemic damage in the same study population.
A total of 110 comatose patients who had experienced OHCA from a cardiac cause were randomized to receive either inhaled xenon (40% end-tidal concentration) combined with hypothermia (33°C) for 24 h (n = 55; xenon group) or hypothermia treatment alone (n = 55; control group). Troponin-T levels were measured at hospital admission, and at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-cardiac arrest. All available cases were analyzed for troponin-T release.
Troponin-T measurements were available from 54 xenon patients and 54 control patients. The baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjustments for age, sex, study site, primary coronary percutaneous intervention (PCI), and norepinephrine dose, the mean ± SD post-arrival incremental change of the ln-transformed troponin-T at 72 h was 0.79 ± 1.54 in the xenon group and 1.56 ± 1.38 in the control group (adjusted mean difference –0.66; 95% confidence interval: –1.16 to –0.16; p = 0.01). The effect of xenon on the change in the troponin-T values did not differ in patients with or without PCI or in those with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (group by PCI or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction interaction effect; p = 0.86 and p = 0.71, respectively).
Among comatose survivors of OHCA, in comparison with hypothermia alone, inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia suggested a less severe myocardial injury as demonstrated by the significantly reduced release of troponin-T.
Studies of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have suggested that improved survival has been primarily due to utilization of heart transplantation.
This study sought to determine transplant-free survival for these children over 20 years and identify the clinical characteristics at diagnosis that predicted death.
Children <18 years of age with some type of DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry were divided by year of diagnosis into an early cohort (1990 to 1999) and a late cohort (2000 to 2009). Competing risks and multivariable modeling were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death, transplant, and echocardiographic normalization by cohort and to identify the factors associated with death.
Of 1,953 children, 1,199 were in the early cohort and 754 were in the late cohort. Most children in both cohorts had idiopathic DCM (64% vs. 63%, respectively). Median age (1.6 vs. 1.7 years), left ventricular end-diastolic z-scores (+4.2 vs. +4.2), and left ventricular fractional shortening (16% vs. 17%) at diagnosis were similar between cohorts. Although the rates of echocardiographic normalization (30% and 27%) and heart transplantation (24% and 24%) were similar, the death rate was higher in the early cohort than in the late cohort (18% vs. 9%; p = 0.04). Being in the early cohort (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.9; p = 0.03) independently predicted death.
Children with DCM have improved survival in the more recent era. This appears to be associated with factors other than heart transplantation, which was equally prevalent in both eras. (Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry [PCMR]; NCT00005391)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors substantially reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but it is presently unclear whether they also reduce mortality. The list prices of PCSK9 inhibitors in the United States (>$14,500 per year) are >100x higher than generic statins, and only a small fraction of their higher cost is likely to be recovered by prevention of cardiovascular events. The projected cost effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors does not meet generally accepted benchmarks for good value in the United States, but their value would be improved by substantial price reductions. For individual patients, the high out-of-pocket costs of PCSK9 inhibitors may impede access and reduce long-term adherence. The budgetary impact of PCSK9 inhibitors would be very large if all potentially eligible patients were treated, which poses dilemmas for policymakers, payers, and society.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in high schools is required by law in the majority of U.S. states. However, laws differ from state to state, and it is unknown how this legislation is being enacted. The authors sent a cross-sectional, closed survey to educational superintendents in 32 states with CPR laws in June 2016. The authors subsequently performed direct examination and categorization of CPR legislation in 39 states (several states passed legislation as of September 2017). Survey results indicated differing practices with regard to CPR instruction in areas such as course content (63% perform automated external defibrillator training), instructor (47% used CPR-certified teachers/coaches, 30% used other CPR-certified instructors, 11% used noncertified teachers/coaches), and method (7% followed American Red Cross methods, 55% followed American Heart Association methods). CPR laws differ, although almost all (97%) require hands-on training. Although hands-on practice during CPR instruction in high school is required by law in the majority of U.S. states, there is currently no standardized method of implementation.
2017 Roadmap for Innovation--ACC Health Policy Statement on Healthcare Transformation in the Era of Digital Health, Big Data, and Precision Health: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Health Policy Statements and Systems of Care20/11/2017
Effect of a Formalized Research Curriculum on Fellows-in-Training and Early Career Research Productivity20/11/2017
Reply: Improved Outcomes With Cardiology Care in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: Is Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy Underestimated?20/11/2017
Improved Outcomes With Cardiology Care in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: Is Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy Underestimated?20/11/2017
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