JACC - Recientes
A large proportion of patients presenting with non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) present with multivessel disease (MVD). There is uncertainty in the role of complete coronary revascularization in this group of patients.
The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of complete revascularization compared with culprit vessel–only intervention in a large contemporary cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for NSTEMI.
The authors undertook an observational cohort study of 37,491 NSTEMI patients treated between 2005 and 2015 at the 8 heart attack centers in London. Clinical details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. A total of 21,857 patients (58.3%) presented with NSTEMI and MVD. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 2.2 to 5.8 years).
A total of 11,737 (53.7%) patients underwent single-stage complete revascularization during PCI for NSTEMI, rates that significantly increased during the study period (p = 0.006). Those patients undergoing complete revascularization were older and more likely to be male, diabetic, have renal disease and a history of previous myocardial infarction/revascularization compared with the culprit-only revascularization group. Although crude, in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were similar (5.2% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.462) between the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significant differences in mortality rates between the 2 groups (22.5% complete revascularization vs. 25.9% culprit vessel intervention; p = 0.0005) during the follow-up period. After multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.85 to 0.97) and the use of propensity matching (hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.98) complete revascularization was associated with reduced mortality.
In NSTEMI patients with MVD, despite higher initial (in-hospital) mortality rates, single-stage complete coronary revascularization appears to be superior to culprit-only vessel PCI in terms of long-term mortality rates. This supports the need for further randomized study to confirm these findings.
It has been shown that intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and radiofrequency (RF-)IVUS can detect high-risk coronary plaque characteristics.
The authors studied the long-term prognostic value of (RF-)IVUS-derived plaque characteristics in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography.
From 2008 to 2011, (RF-)IVUS was performed in 1 nonstenotic segment of a nonculprit coronary artery in 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina. The pre-defined primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, nonfatal ACS, or unplanned revascularization. Hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, sex, and clinical risk factors.
During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 152 patients (26.2%) had MACE. The presence of a lesion with a minimal luminal area ≤4.0 mm2 was independently associated with MACE (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.08; p = 0.020), whereas the presence of a thin-cap fibroatheroma lesion or a lesion with a plaque burden ≥70% on its own were not. Results were comparable when the composite endpoint included cardiac death instead of all-cause death. The presence of a lesion with a plaque burden of ≥70% was independently associated with the composite endpoint of cardiac death, nonfatal ACS, or unplanned revascularization after exclusion of culprit lesion-related events (HR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.58; p = 0.026). Likewise, each 10-U increase in segmental plaque burden was independently associated with a 26% increase in risk of this composite endpoint (HR: 1.26 per 10-U increase; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.52; p = 0.022).
IVUS-derived small luminal area and large plaque burden, and not RF-IVUS–derived compositional plaque features on their own, predict adverse cardiovascular outcome during long-term follow-up in patients with CAD. (The European Collaborative Project on Inflammation and Vascular Wall Remodeling in Atherosclerosis–Intravascular Ultrasound Study [AtheroRemoIVUS]; NCT01789411)
Incremental low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with the proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitor evolocumab regresses coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding evolocumab to statin therapy on coronary plaque composition.
A total of 968 statin-treated coronary artery disease patients underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasound imaging at baseline and following 76 weeks of treatment with placebo or evolocumab 420 mg monthly. Plaque composition changes were determined in 331 patients with evaluable radiofrequency analysis of the ultrasound backscatter signal.
Compared with statin monotherapy, evolocumab further reduced LDL cholesterol (33.5 mg/dl vs. 89.9 mg/dl; p < 0.0001) and induced regression of percent atheroma volume (–1.2% vs. +0.17%; p < 0.0001) and total atheroma volume (–3.6 mm3 vs. –0.8 mm3; p = 0.04). No difference was observed between the evolocumab and placebo groups in changes in calcium (1.0 ± 0.3 mm3 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 mm3; p = 0.49), fibrous (–3.0 ± 0.6 mm3 vs. –2.4 ± 0.6 mm3; p = 0.49), fibrofatty (–5.0 ± 1.0 mm3 vs. –3.0 ± 1.0 mm3; p = 0.49), and necrotic (–0.6 ± 0.5 mm3 vs. –0.1 ± 0.5 mm3; p = 0.49) volumes. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in LDL cholesterol and plaque calcification (r = –0.15; p < 0.001).
The addition of evolocumab to a statin did not produce differential changes in plaque composition compared with statin monotherapy. This suggests that evaluation of plaque morphology using virtual histology imaging may provide no incremental information about the plaque effects of evolocumab beyond measurement of plaque burden. (GLobal Assessment of Plaque reGression With a PCSK9 antibOdy as Measured by intraVascular Ultrasound [GLAGOV]; NCT01813422)
The long-term risk of thromboembolism in patients developing new-onset post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following noncardiac surgery is unknown, and data on stroke prophylaxis in this setting are lacking.
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term risk of thromboembolism in patients developing new-onset POAF following noncardiac surgery relative to patients with nonsurgical, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).
Using Danish nationwide registries, the authors identified all patients who developed POAF following noncardiac surgery from 1996 to 2015. These were matched by age, sex, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, previous thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease, and year of diagnosis to patients with nonsurgical NVAF in a 1:4 ratio. Comparative long-term risk of thromboembolism was examined by multivariable Cox regression models.
In patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, 6,048 (0.4%) developed POAF during hospitalization, with the highest incidences following thoracic/pulmonary, vascular, and abdominal surgery. A total of 3,830 patients with POAF were matched with 15,320 patients with NVAF. Oral anticoagulation therapy was initiated within 30 days post-discharge in 24.3% and 41.3% of these patients, respectively (p value <0.001). The long-term risk of thromboembolism was similar in patients with POAF and NVAF (31.7 events vs. 29.9 events per 1,000 person years; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 1.07). Anticoagulation therapy during follow-up was associated with a comparably lowered risk of thromboembolic events in patients with POAF (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.67) as well as NVAF (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) compared with no anticoagulation therapy.
New-onset POAF following noncardiac surgery was associated with a long-term risk of thromboembolism similar to NVAF.
Should All Atrial Fibrillation Be Considered a Life-Long Problem Requiring Prophylaxis Against Thromboembolism?15/10/2018
Patients with cardiac amyloidosis often have carpal tunnel syndrome that precedes cardiac manifestations by several years. However, the prevalence of cardiac involvement at the time of carpal tunnel surgery has not been established.
The authors sought to identify the prevalence and type of amyloid deposits in patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery and evaluate for cardiac involvement. The authors also sought to determine if patients with soft tissue transthyretin (TTR) amyloid had abnormal TTR tetramer kinetic stability.
This was a prospective, cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study of consecutive men age ≥50 years and women ≥60 years undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery. Biopsy specimens of tenosynovial tissue were obtained and stained with Congo red; those with confirmed amyloid deposits were typed with mass spectrometry and further evaluated for cardiac involvement with biomarkers, electrocardiography, echocardiography with longitudinal strain, and technetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy. Additionally, serum TTR concentration and tetramer kinetic stability were examined.
Of 98 patients enrolled (median age 68 years, 51% male), 10 (10.2%) had a positive biopsy for amyloid (7 ATTR, 2 light chain [AL], 1 untyped). Two patients were diagnosed with hereditary ATTR (Leu58His and Ala81Thr), 2 were found to have cardiac involvement (1 AL, 1 ATTR wild-type), and 3 were initiated on therapy. In those patients who had biopsy-diagnosed ATTR, there was no difference in plasma TTR concentration or tetramer kinetic stability.
In a cohort of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery, Congo red staining of tenosynovial tissue detected amyloid deposits in 10.2% of patients. Concomitant cardiac evaluation identified patients with involvement of the myocardium, allowing for implementation of disease-modifying therapy. (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Amyloid Cardiomyopathy; NCT02792790)
Fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) air pollution is the most important environmental risk factor contributing to global cardiovascular (CV) mortality and disability. Short-term elevations in PM2.5 increase the relative risk of acute CV events by 1% to 3% within a few days. Longer-term exposures over several years increase this risk by a larger magnitude (~10%), which is partially attributable to the development of cardiometabolic conditions (e.g., hypertension and diabetes mellitus). As such, ambient PM2.5 poses a major threat to global public health. In this review, the authors provide an overview of air pollution and health, including assessment of exposure, impact on CV outcomes, mechanistic underpinnings, and impact of air pollution reduction strategies to mitigate CV risk. The review concludes with future challenges, including the inextricable link between air pollution and climate change, and calls for large-scale trials to allow the promulgation of formal evidence-based recommendations to lower air pollution–induced health risks.
Observations on human and experimental atherosclerosis, biomarker studies, and now a large-scale clinical trial support the operation of immune and inflammatory pathways in this disease. The factors that incite innate and adaptive immune responses implicated in atherogenesis and in lesion complication include traditional risk factors such as protein and lipid components of native and modified low-density lipoprotein, angiotensin II, smoking, visceral adipose tissue, and dysmetabolism. Infectious processes and products of the endogenous microbiome might also modulate atherosclerosis and its complications either directly, or indirectly by eliciting local and systemic responses that potentiate disease expression. Trials with antibiotics have not reduced recurrent cardiovascular events, nor have vaccination strategies yet achieved clinical translation. However, anti-inflammatory interventions such as anticytokine therapy and colchicine have begun to show efficacy in this regard. Thus, inflammatory and immune mechanisms can link traditional and emerging risk factors to atherosclerosis, and offer novel avenues for therapeutic intervention.
Annual live meetings are a focus for many organizations and professional societies and have long been considered an essential part of lifelong learning. Live meetings offer a venue for a wide range of topics including late breaking science, traditional and novel educational formats, networking opportunities, integration of technology, engagement of the cardiovascular team, and more. Although many factors provide challenges for the future of live annual meetings, there are many opportunities as well. The unique aspects of interactions and experiences at these meetings will maintain their importance in the lifelong learning toolbox.
Non-VKA Oral Anticoagulant and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Paradoxical Procoagulant Effect of Warfarin?15/10/2018
Genomic Risk Prediction of Coronary Artery Disease in 480,000 Adults: Implications for Primary Prevention8/10/2018
Coronary artery disease (CAD) has substantial heritability and a polygenic architecture. However, the potential of genomic risk scores to help predict CAD outcomes has not been evaluated comprehensively, because available studies have involved limited genomic scope and limited sample sizes.
This study sought to construct a genomic risk score for CAD and to estimate its potential as a screening tool for primary prevention.
Using a meta-analytic approach to combine large-scale, genome-wide, and targeted genetic association data, we developed a new genomic risk score for CAD (metaGRS) consisting of 1.7 million genetic variants. We externally tested metaGRS, both by itself and in combination with available data on conventional risk factors, in 22,242 CAD cases and 460,387 noncases from the UK Biobank.
The hazard ratio (HR) for CAD was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.73) per SD increase in metaGRS, an association larger than any other externally tested genetic risk score previously published. The metaGRS stratified individuals into significantly different life course trajectories of CAD risk, with those in the top 20% of metaGRS distribution having an HR of 4.17 (95% CI: 3.97 to 4.38) compared with those in the bottom 20%. The corresponding HR was 2.83 (95% CI: 2.61 to 3.07) among individuals on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications. The metaGRS had a higher C-index (C = 0.623; 95% CI: 0.615 to 0.631) for incident CAD than any of 6 conventional factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, self-reported high cholesterol, and family history). For men in the top 20% of metaGRS with >2 conventional factors, 10% cumulative risk of CAD was reached by 48 years of age.
The genomic score developed and evaluated here substantially advances the concept of using genomic information to stratify individuals with different trajectories of CAD risk and highlights the potential for genomic screening in early life to complement conventional risk prediction.
Percutaneous Intramyocardial Septal Radiofrequency Ablation for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy8/10/2018
In patients with disabling symptoms caused by hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), echocardiography-guided percutaneous intramyocardial septal radiofrequency ablation (PIMSRA) could be a less invasive treatment option.
This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the PIMSRA for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient reduction in HOCM.
The study enrolled 15 patients with HOCM. These patients underwent electrocardiography, imaging, and blood biochemistry examination over 6 months of follow-up.
At 6 months of follow-up, patients showed significant reductions in peak LVOT gradients (resting gradient: from 88.00 [66.00] mm Hg to 11.00 [6.00] mm Hg; p = 0.001; stress-induced gradient: from 117.00 [81.00] mm Hg to 25.00 [20.00] mm Hg; p = 0.005) and interventricular septum (IVS) thickness (anterior IVS: from 25.00 [21.00] mm to 14.00 [12.00] mm; p = 0.001; posterior IVS: from 24.00 [21.00] mm to 14.00 [11.50] mm; p = 0.001). The reductions in IVS thickness and LVOT gradients were associated with improvement in New York Heart Association functional classification (from 3.00 [2.00] to 1.00 [1.00]; p < 0.001), total exercise time (from 6.00 [5.50] min to 9.00 [8.00] min; p = 0.007), and pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels (from 924.00 [370.45] pg/ml to 137.45 [75.73] pg/ml; p = 0.028). No patient had bundle branch block or complete heart block.
PIMSRA is a safe and effective treatment approach for severe, symptomatic HOCM and results in sustained improvement in exercise capacity, persistent reduction in LVOT gradient, and sustained improvement in cardiac function.
Provider Specialty, Anticoagulation, and Stroke Risk in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Cancer8/10/2018
It is unknown whether early cardiology involvement shortly after atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis is associated with favorable outcomes in AF patients who have cancer.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between early cardiology involvement after AF diagnosis in patients with history of cancer.
This study examined associations of early cardiology involvement with oral anticoagulation use, stroke, and bleeding among nonvalvular AF patients (n = 388,045; mean age 68 ± 15 years; 59% male) with a history of cancer (past or active) from the MarketScan database (2009 to 2014). International Classification of Disease-9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes in any position were used to identify cancer diagnosis prior to AF diagnosis. Provider specialty and filled anticoagulant prescriptions 3 months prior to and 6 months after AF diagnosis were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to compute the probability of an oral anticoagulant prescription fill, and Cox regression was used to estimate the risks of stroke and major bleeding.
A total of 64,016 (17%) AF patients had a history of cancer. Cardiology involvement was less likely to occur among patients with a history of cancer than those without (relative risk [RR]: 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91 to 0.93]). Patients with history of cancer were less likely to fill prescriptions for anticoagulants (RR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.88 to 0.90]) than those without cancer, and similar results were observed across cancer types. Patients with cancer were more likely to fill prescriptions for anticoagulants (RR: 1.48 [95% CI: 1.45 to 1.52]) if seen by a cardiologist. A reduced risk of stroke (hazard ratio: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.81 to 0.99]) was observed among all cancer patients who were seen by a cardiology provider, without an increased risk of bleeding (hazard ratio: 1.04 [95% CI: 0.95 to 1.13]). Similar results were observed when the analysis was stratified by active versus remote history of cancer.
Although AF patients with cancer were less likely to see a cardiologist, or fill anticoagulant prescriptions, cardiology involvement was associated with increased anticoagulant prescription fills and favorable AF-related outcomes in AF patients with cancer.
Coronary lesions with low fractional flow reserve (FFR) that are treated medically are associated with higher revascularization rates. High wall shear stress (WSS) has been linked with increased plaque vulnerability.
This study investigated the prognostic value of WSS measured in the proximal segments of lesions (WSSprox) to predict myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and hemodynamically significant lesions. The authors hypothesized that in patients with low FFR and stable CAD, higher WSSprox would predict MI.
Among 441 patients in the FAME II (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation II) trial with FFR ≤0.80 who were randomized to medical therapy alone, 34 (8%) had subsequent MI within 3 years. Patients with vessel-related MI and adequate angiograms for 3-dimensional reconstruction (n = 29) were propensity matched to a control group with no MI (n = 29) by using demographic and clinical variables. Coronary lesions were divided into proximal, middle, and distal, along with 5-mm upstream and downstream segments. WSS was calculated for each segment.
Median age was 62 years, and 46 (79%) were male. In the marginal Cox model, whereas lower FFR showed a trend (hazard ratio: 0.084; p = 0.064), higher WSSprox (hazard ratio: 1.234; p = 0.002, C-index = 0.65) predicted MI. Adding WSSprox to FFR resulted in a significant increase in global chi-square for predicting MI (p = 0.045), a net reclassification improvement of 0.69 (p = 0.005), and an integrated discrimination index of 0.11 (p = 0.010).
In patients with stable CAD and hemodynamically significant lesions, higher WSS in the proximal segments of atherosclerotic lesions is predictive of MI and has incremental prognostic value over FFR.
Fetal atrioventricular block (AVB) occurs in 2% to 4% of anti-Ro antibody–positive pregnancies and can develop in <24 h. Only rarely has standard fetal heart rate surveillance detected AVB in time for effective treatment.
Outcome of anti-Ro pregnancies was surveilled with twice-daily home fetal heart rate and rhythm monitoring (FHRM) and surveillance echocardiography.
Anti-Ro pregnant women were recruited from 16 international centers in a prospective observational study. Between 18 and 26 weeks’ gestation, mothers checked FHRM twice daily with a commercially available Doppler monitor and underwent weekly or biweekly surveillance fetal echocardiograms. If FHRM was abnormal, a diagnostic echocardiogram was performed. Cardiac cycle length and atrioventricular interval were measured, and cardiac function was assessed on all echocardiograms. After 26 weeks, home FHRM and echocardiograms were discontinued, and mothers were monitored during routine obstetrical visits. Postnatal electrocardiograms were performed.
Most mothers (273 of 315, 87%) completed the monitoring protocol, generating 1,752 fetal echocardiograms. Abnormal FHRM was detected in 21 mothers (6.7%) who sought medical attention >12 h (n = 7), 3 to 12 h (n = 9), or <3 h (n = 5) after abnormal FHRM. Eighteen fetuses had benign rhythms, and 3 had second- or third-degree AVB. Treatment of second-degree AVB <12 h after abnormal FHRM restored sinus rhythm. Four fetuses had first-degree AVB diagnosed by echocardiography; none progressed to second-degree AVB. No AVB was missed by home FHRM or developed after FHRM.
Home FHRM confirms the rapid progression of normal rhythm to AVB and can define a window of time for successful therapy. (Prospective Maternal Surveillance of SSA [Sjögren Syndrome A] Positive Pregnancies Using a Hand-held Fetal Heart Rate Monitor; NCT02920346)
Stress cardiomyopathy is an acute reversible heart failure syndrome initially believed to represent a benign condition due to its self-limiting clinical course, but now recognized to be associated with a non-negligible rate of serious complications such as ventricular arrhythmias, systemic thromboembolism, and cardiogenic shock. Due to an increased awareness and recognition, the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy has been rising (15-30 cases per 100,000 per year), although the true incidence is unknown as the condition is likely underdiagnosed. Stress cardiomyopathy represents a form of neurocardiogenic myocardial stunning, and while the link between the brain and the heart is established, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. We herein review the proposed risk factors and triggers for the syndrome and discuss a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment of the patients with stress cardiomyopathy, highlighting potential challenges and unresolved questions.
Despite advances over the past decade, the incidence of cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction has increased, with an unchanged mortality near 50%. Recent trials have not clarified the best strategies in treatment. While dedicated cardiac shock centers are being established, there are no standardized agreements on the utilization of mechanical circulatory support and the timeliness of percutaneous coronary intervention strategies. In some centers and prospective registries, outcomes after placement of advanced mechanical circulatory support prior to reperfusion therapy with percutaneous coronary intervention have been encouraging with improved survival. Here, we suggest systems of care with a treatment pathway for patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.