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Recommendations for physical activity in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) are based on modest evidence.
The authors analyzed the association between self-reported exercise and mortality in patients with stable CHD.
A total of 15,486 patients from 39 countries with stable CHD who participated in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) study completed questions at baseline on hours spent each week taking mild, moderate, and vigorous exercise. Associations between the volume of habitual exercise in metabolic equivalents of task hours/week and adverse outcomes during a median follow-up of 3.7 years were evaluated.
A graded decrease in mortality occurred with increased habitual exercise that was steeper at lower compared with higher exercise levels. Doubling exercise volume was associated with lower all-cause mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.85; adjusting for covariates, HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.93). These associations were similar for cardiovascular mortality (unadjusted HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.87; adjusted HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96), but myocardial infarction and stroke were not associated with exercise volume after adjusting for covariates. The association between decrease in mortality and greater physical activity was stronger in the subgroup of patients at higher risk estimated by the ABC-CHD (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical–Coronary Heart Disease) risk score (p for interaction = 0.0007).
In patients with stable CHD, more physical activity was associated with lower mortality. The largest benefits occurred between sedentary patient groups and between those with the highest mortality risk.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter cardiac structure and function, but obesity, hypertension (HTN), or aging can induce similar abnormalities.
This study sought to link cardiac phenotypes in T2DM patients with clinical profiles and outcomes using cluster analysis.
Baseline echocardiography and a composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization) were evaluated in 842 T2DM patients from 2 prospective cohorts. A cluster analysis was performed on echocardiographic variables, and the association between clusters and clinical profiles and outcomes was assessed.
Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 patients had the lowest left ventricular (LV) mass index and ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio, had the highest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and were predominantly male with the lowest rate of obesity or HTN. Cluster 2 patients had the highest strain and highest E/e' ratio, were the oldest, were predominantly female, and had the lowest rate of isolated T2DM (without HTN or obesity). Cluster 3 patients had the highest LV mass index and volumes and the lowest LVEF and strain, were predominantly male, and shared similar age and rate of obesity and HTN as cluster 1 patients. After follow-up of 67 months (interquartile range: 40 to 87), the composite endpoint occurred in 56 of 521 patients (10.8%). Clusters 2 (hazard ratio: 2.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 4.88) and 3 (hazard ratio: 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.82) had a similar outcome, which was worse than cluster 1.
Cluster analysis of echocardiographic variables identified 3 different echocardiographic phenotypes of T2DM patients that were associated with distinct clinical profiles and highlighted the prognostic value of LV remodeling and subclinical dysfunction.
Dual-Chamber Pacing With Closed Loop Stimulation in Recurrent Reflex Vasovagal Syncope: The SPAIN Study25/9/2017
Pacing in vasovagal syncope remains controversial.
The authors evaluated dual-chamber pacing with closed loop stimulation (DDD-CLS) in patients with cardioinhibitory vasovagal syncope.
This randomized, double-blind, controlled study included Canadian and Spanish patients age ≥40 years, with high burden syncope (≥5 episodes, ≥2 episodes in the past year), and a cardioinhibitory head-up tilt test (bradycardia <40 beats/min for 10 s or asystole >3 s). Patients were randomized to either DDD-CLS pacing for 12 months followed by sham DDI mode pacing at 30 pulses/min for 12 months (group A), or sham DDI mode for 12 months followed by DDD-CLS pacing for 12 months (group B). Patients in both arms crossed-over after 12 months of follow-up or when a maximum of 3 syncopal episodes occurred within 1 month.
A total of 46 patients completed the protocol; 22 were men (47.8%), and mean age was 56.30 ± 10.63 years. The mean number of previous syncopal episodes was 12 (range 9 to 20). The proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in the number of syncopal episodes was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 47% to 90%) with DDD-CLS compared with 28% (95% CI: 9.7% to 53.5%) with sham DDI mode (p = 0.017). A total of 4 patients (8.7%) had events during DDD-CLS and 21 (45.7%) during sham DDI (hazard ratio: 6.7; 95% CI: 2.3 to 19.8). Kaplan-Meier curve was significantly different between groups in time to first syncope: 29.2 months (95% CI: 15.3 to 29.2 months) versus 9.3 months (95% CI: 6.21 months, NA; p < 0.016); odds ratio: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.37; p < 0.0001).
DDD-CLS pacing significantly reduced syncope burden and time to first recurrence by 7-fold, prolonging time to first syncope recurrence in patients age ≥40 years with head-up tilt test–induced vasovagal syncope compared with sham pacing. (Closed Loop Stimulation for Neuromediated Syncope [SPAIN Study]; NCT01621464)
Genetic screening programs in unselected individuals with increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have shown modest results in identifying individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
This study assessed the prevalence of genetically confirmed FH in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compared the diagnostic performance of FH clinical criteria versus FH genetic testing.
Genetic study of 7 genes (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE, STAP1, LDLRAP1, and LIPA) associated with FH and 12 common alleles associated with polygenic hypercholesterolemia was performed in 103 patients with ACS, age ≤65 years, and LDL-C levels ≥160 mg/dl. Dutch Lipid Clinic (DLC) and Simon Broome (SB) FH clinical criteria were also applied.
The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3% to 16.4%; n = 9); 29% (95% CI: 18.5% to 42.1%; n = 18) of patients without FH variants had a score highly suggestive of polygenic hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of probable to definite FH according to DLC criteria was 27.2% (95% CI: 19.1% to 37.0%; n = 28), whereas SB criteria identified 27.2% of patients (95% CI: 19.1% to 37.0%; n = 28) with possible to definite FH. DLC and SB algorithms failed to diagnose 4 (44%) and 3 (33%) patients with genetically confirmed FH, respectively. Cascade genetic testing in first-degree relatives identified 6 additional individuals with FH.
The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH in patients with ACS age ≤65 years and with LDL-C levels ≥160 mg/dl is high (approximately 9%). FH clinical algorithms do not accurately classify patients with FH. Genetic testing should be advocated in young patients with ACS and high LDL-C levels to allow prompt identification of patients with FH and relatives at risk.
Increased protein phosphatase-1 in heart failure (HF) induces molecular changes deleterious to the cardiac cell. Inhibiting protein phosphatase-1 through the overexpression of a constitutively active inhibitor-1 (I-1c) has been shown to reverse cardiac dysfunction in a model of ischemic HF.
This study sought to determine the therapeutic efficacy of a re-engineered adenoassociated viral vector carrying I-1c (BNP116.I-1c) in a preclinical model of nonischemic HF, and to assess thoroughly the safety of BNP116.I-1c gene therapy.
Volume-overload HF was created in Yorkshire swine by inducing severe mitral regurgitation. One month after mitral regurgitation induction, pigs were randomized to intracoronary delivery of either BNP116.I-1c (n = 6) or saline (n = 7). Therapeutic efficacy and safety were evaluated 2 months after gene delivery. Additionally, 24 naive pigs received different doses of BNP116.I-1c for safety evaluation.
At 1 month after mitral regurgitation induction, pigs developed HF as evidenced by increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and left ventricular volume indexes. Treatment with BNP116.I-1c resulted in improved left ventricular ejection fraction (–5.9 ± 4.2% vs. 5.5 ± 4.0%; p < 0.001) and adjusted dP/dt maximum (–3.39 ± 2.44 s-1 vs. 1.30 ± 2.39 s-1; p = 0.007). Moreover, BNP116.I-1c-treated pigs also exhibited a significant increase in left atrial ejection fraction at 2 months after gene delivery (–4.3 ± 3.1% vs. 7.5 ± 3.1%; p = 0.02). In vitro I-1c gene transfer in isolated left atrial myocytes from both pigs and rats increased calcium transient amplitude, consistent with its positive impact on left atrial contraction. We found no evidence of adverse electrical remodeling, arrhythmogenicity, activation of a cellular immune response, or off-target organ damage by BNP116.I-1c gene therapy in pigs.
Intracoronary delivery of BNP116.I-1c was safe and improved contractility of the left ventricle and atrium in a large animal model of nonischemic HF.
Antiplatelet drugs provide first-line antithrombotic therapy for the management of acute ischemic syndromes (both coronary and cerebrovascular) and for the prevention of their recurrence. Their role in the primary prevention of atherothrombosis remains controversial because of the uncertain balance of the potential benefits and risks when combined with other preventive strategies. The aim of this consensus document is to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet drugs, and to provide practicing cardiologists with an updated instrument to guide their choice of the most appropriate antiplatelet strategy for the individual patient presenting with different clinical manifestations of coronary atherothrombosis, in light of comorbidities and/or interventional procedures.
The clinical use of ivabradine has and continues to evolve along channels that are predicated on its mechanism of action. It selectively inhibits the funny current (If) in sinoatrial nodal tissue, resulting in a decrease in the rate of diastolic depolarization and, consequently, the heart rate, a mechanism that is distinct from those of other negative chronotropic agents. Thus, it has been evaluated and is used in select patients with systolic heart failure and chronic stable angina without clinically significant adverse effects. Although not approved for other indications, ivabradine has also shown promise in the management of inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Here, the authors review the mechanism of action of ivabradine and salient studies that have led to its current clinical indications and use.
2017 Focused Update of the 2016 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Role of Non-Statin Therapies for LDL-Cholesterol Lowering in the Management of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways25/9/2017
In 2016, the American College of Cardiology published the first expert consensus decision pathway (ECDP) on the role of non-statin therapies for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)–cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Since the publication of that document, additional evidence and perspectives have emerged from randomized clinical trials and other sources, particularly considering the longer-term efficacy and safety of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in secondary prevention of ASCVD. Most notably, the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) trial and SPIRE-1 and -2 (Studies of PCSK9 Inhibition and the Reduction of Vascular Events), assessing evolocumab and bococizumab, respectively, have published final results of cardiovascular outcomes trials in patients with clinical ASCVD and in a smaller number of high-risk primary prevention patients. In addition, further evidence on the types of patients most likely to benefit from the use of ezetimibe in addition to statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome has been published. Based on results from these important analyses, the ECDP writing committee judged that it would be desirable to provide a focused update to help guide clinicians more clearly on decision making regarding the use of ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with clinical ASCVD with or without comorbidities. In the following summary table, changes from the 2016 ECDP to the 2017 ECDP Focused Update are highlighted, and a brief rationale is provided. The content of the full document has been changed accordingly, with more extensive and detailed guidance regarding decision making provided both in the text and in the updated algorithms. Revised recommendations are provided for patients with clinical ASCVD with or without comorbidities on statin therapy for secondary prevention. The ECDP writing committee judged that these new data did not warrant changes to the decision pathways and algorithms regarding the use of ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors in primary prevention patients with LDL-C <190 mg/dL with or without diabetes mellitus or patients without ASCVD and LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL not due to secondary causes. Based on feedback and further deliberation, the ECDP writing committee down-graded recommendations regarding bile acid sequestrant use, recommending bile acid sequestrants only as optional secondary agents for consideration in patients intolerant to ezetimibe. For clarification, the writing committee has also included new information on diagnostic categories of heterozygous and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, based on clinical criteria with and without genetic testing. Other changes to the original document were kept to a minimum to provide consistent guidance to clinicians, unless there was a compelling reason or new evidence, in which case justification is provided.
Preterm Birth and Risk of Heart Failure: Potential Contribution of Assisted Reproductive Technologies25/9/2017
The Peguero-Lo Presti Electrocardiographic Criteria Predict All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Aortic Stenosis25/9/2017
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