Circulation - recientes
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Systems of Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association [AHA Scientific Statements]21/5/2018
James J. McCarthy, Brendan Carr, Comilla Sasson, Bentley J. Bobrow, Clifton W. Callaway, Robert W. Neumar, Jose Maria E. Ferrer, J. Lee Garvey, Joseph P. Ornato, Louis Gonzales, Christopher B. Granger, Monica E. Kleinman, Chris Bjerke, Graham Nichol, On behalf of the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation; and the Mission: Lifeline Resuscitation Subcommittee
The American Heart Association previously recommended implementation of cardiac resuscitation systems of care that consist of interconnected community, emergency medical services, and hospital efforts to measure and improve the process of care and outcome for patients with cardiac arrest. In addition, the American Heart Association proposed a national process to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiac resuscitation systems of care. Significant experience has been gained with implementing these systems, and new evidence has accumulated. This update describes recent advances in the science of cardiac resuscitation systems and evidence of their effectiveness, as well as recent progress in dissemination and implementation throughout the United States. Emphasis is placed on evidence published since the original recommendations (ie, including and since 2010).
Indications for the Performance of Intracranial Endovascular Neurointerventional Procedures: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association [AHA Scientific Statements]21/5/2018
Clifford J. Eskey, Philip M. Meyers, Thanh N. Nguyen, Sameer A. Ansari, Mahesh Jayaraman, Cameron G. McDougall, J. Kevin DeMarco, William A. Gray, David C. Hess, Randall T. Higashida, Dilip K. Pandey, Constantino Pena, Hermann C. Schumacher, On behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention and Stroke Council
Intracranial endovascular interventions provide effective and minimally invasive treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This area of expertise has continued to gain both wider application and greater depth as new and better techniques are developed and as landmark clinical studies are performed to guide their use. Some of the greatest advances since the last American Heart Association scientific statement on this topic have been made in the treatment of ischemic stroke from large intracranial vessel occlusion, with more effective devices and large randomized clinical trials showing striking therapeutic benefit. The treatment of cerebral aneurysms has also seen substantial evolution, increasing the number of aneurysms that can be treated successfully with minimally invasive therapy. Endovascular therapies for such other diseases as arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, venous thrombosis, and neoplasms continue to improve. The purpose of the present document is to review current information on the efficacy and safety of procedures used for intracranial endovascular interventional treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and to summarize key aspects of best practice.
Correction to: Nicotinamide Riboside Preserves Cardiac Function in a Mouse Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy [Corrections]21/5/2018
Benjamin L. Ranard, Raina M. Merchant
Ildiko Lingvay, Lawrence A. Leiter
Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Functions Underestimate Risk in HIV Infection [Original Research Articles]21/5/2018
Virginia A. Triant, Jeremiah Perez, Susan Regan, Joseph M. Massaro, James B. Meigs, Steven K. Grinspoon, Ralph B. D’Agostino, Sr
Background:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is elevated in HIV-infected individuals, with contributions from both traditional and nontraditional risk factors. The accuracy of established CVD risk prediction functions in HIV is uncertain. We sought to assess the performance of 3 established CVD risk prediction functions in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected men.Methods:The FHS (Framingham Heart Study) functions for hard coronary heart disease (FHS CHD) and atherosclerotic CVD (FHS ASCVD) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ASCVD function were applied to the Partners HIV cohort. Risk scores were calculated between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008. Outcomes included CHD (myocardial infarction or coronary death) for the FHS CHD function and ASCVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary death) for the FHS ASCVD and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ASCVD functions. We investigated the accuracy of CVD risk prediction for each function when applied to the HIV cohort using comparison of Cox regression coefficients, discrimination, and calibration.Results:The HIV cohort was comprised of 1272 men followed for a median of 4.4 years. There were 78 (6.1%) ASCVD events; the 5-year incidence rate was 16.4 per 1000 person-years. Discrimination was moderate to poor as indicated by the low c statistic (0.68 for FHS CHD, 0.65 for American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ASCVD, and 0.67 for FHS ASCVD). Observed CVD risk exceeded the predicted risk for each of the functions in most deciles of predicted risk. Calibration, or goodness of fit of the models, was consistently poor, with significant χ2 P values for all functions. Recalibration did not significantly improve model fit.Conclusions:Cardiovascular risk prediction functions developed for use in the general population are inaccurate in HIV infection and systematically underestimate risk in a cohort of HIV-infected men. Development of tailored CVD risk prediction functions incorporating traditional CVD risk factors and HIV-specific factors is likely to result in more accurate risk estimation to guide preventative CVD care.
Challenges of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Evaluation in People Living With HIV Infection [Editorials]21/5/2018
Andre Pascal Kengne, Mpiko Ntsekhe
Prevalence and Predictors of Cholesterol Screening, Awareness, and Statin Treatment Among US Adults With Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Other Forms of Severe Dyslipidemia (1999-2014) [Original Research Article]21/5/2018
Emily M. Bucholz, Angie Mae Rodday, Katherine Kolor, Muin J. Khoury, Sarah D. de Ferranti
Background:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other extreme elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, recent data suggest that prescription rates for statins remain low in these patients. National rates of screening, awareness, and treatment with statins among individuals with FH or severe dyslipidemia are unknown.Methods:Data from the 1999 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate prevalence rates of self-reported screening, awareness, and statin therapy among US adults (n=42 471 weighted to represent 212 million US adults) with FH (defined using the Dutch Lipid Clinic criteria) and with severe dyslipidemia (defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dL). Logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and clinical correlates of hypercholesterolemia awareness and statin therapy.Results:The estimated US prevalence of definite/probable FH was 0.47% (standard error, 0.03%) and of severe dyslipidemia was 6.6% (standard error, 0.2%). The frequency of cholesterol screening and awareness was high (>80%) among adults with definite/probable FH or severe dyslipidemia; however, statin use was uniformly low (52.3% [standard error, 8.2%] of adults with definite/probable FH and 37.6% [standard error, 1.2%] of adults with severe dyslipidemia). Only 30.3% of patients with definite/probable FH on statins were taking a high-intensity statin. The prevalence of statin use in adults with severe dyslipidemia increased over time (from 29.4% to 47.7%) but not faster than trends in the general population (from 5.7% to 17.6%). Older age, health insurance status, having a usual source of care, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and having a personal history of early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were associated with higher statin use.Conclusions:Despite the high prevalence of cholesterol screening and awareness, only ≈50% of adults with FH are on statin therapy, with even fewer prescribed a high-intensity statin; young and uninsured patients are at the highest risk for lack of screening and for undertreatment. This study highlights an imperative to improve the frequency of cholesterol screening and statin prescription rates to better identify and treat this high-risk population. Additional studies are needed to better understand how to close these gaps in screening and treatment.
Randomized Comparisons of Double-Dose Clopidogrel or Adjunctive Cilostazol Versus Standard Dual Antiplatelet in Patients With High Posttreatment Platelet Reactivity [Original Research Article]21/5/2018
Yi-Da Tang, Wenyao Wang, Min Yang, Kuo Zhang, Jing Chen, Shubin Qiao, Hongbing Yan, Yongjian Wu, Xiaohong Huang, Bo Xu, Runlin Gao, Yuejin Yang, On behalf of the CREATIVE Investigators
Background:Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention react differently to antiplatelet drugs. Those with low responsiveness to clopidogrel have a higher risk of cardiac ischemic events. The goal of this study is to conduct a head-to-head comparison of the safety and effectiveness of intensified antiplatelet therapies (either double-dose clopidogrel [DOUBLE] or adjunctive cilostazol [TRIPLE]) and conventional strategy (STANDARD) in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention.Methods:In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we used thromboelastography, a platelet function test, to select 1078 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at high thrombotic risk and compared the intensified antiplatelet therapies with standard antiplatelet therapy. The primary outcome was the incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 18 months after percutaneous coronary intervention, defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, or stroke. Bleeding Academic Research Consortium defined bleeding complications (types 1, 2, 3, or 5) were the safety end points.Results:The primary end point occurred in 52 patients (14.4%) in the STANDARD group, 38 patients (10.6%) in the DOUBLE group, and 30 patients (8.5%) in the TRIPLE group (hazard ratio, 0.720; 95% confidence interval, 0.474–1.094, DOUBLE versus STANDARD; hazard ratio, 0.550; 95% confidence interval, 0.349–0.866, TRIPLE versus STANDARD). No significant difference in the rates of major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium grade≥3) was found in the DOUBLE group (3.34% versus 1.93% in STANDARD, P=0.133) and the TRIPLE group (2.53% versus 1.93% in STANDARD, P=0.240). The rate of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium–defined minor bleeding increased in the DOUBLE group (27.4% versus 20.3% in STANDARD, P=0.031), but not in the TRIPLE group (23.6% versus 20.3% in STANDARD, P=0.146).Conclusions:In patients with low responsiveness to clopidogrel, as measured by thromboelastography, the intensified antiplatelet strategies with adjunctive use of cilostazol significantly improved the clinical outcomes without increasing the risk of major bleeding. Decreased trend of negative outcomes could be observed in patients with double dosage of clopidogrel, but the difference was not significant.Clinical Trial Registration:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01779401.
Jane W. Newburger, Lynn A. Sleeper, J. William Gaynor, Danielle Hollenbeck-Pringle, Peter C. Frommelt, Jennifer S. Li, William T. Mahle, Ismee A. Williams, Andrew M. Atz, Kristin M. Burns, Shan Chen, James Cnota, Carolyn Dunbar-Masterson, Nancy S. Ghanayem, Caren S. Goldberg, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Alan B. Lewis, Seema Mital, Christian Pizarro, Aaron Eckhauser, Paul Stark, Richard G. Ohye, On behalf of the Pediatric Heart Network Investigators*
Background:In the SVR trial (Single Ventricle Reconstruction), 1-year transplant-free survival was better for the Norwood procedure with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery shunt (RVPAS) compared with a modified Blalock–Taussig shunt in patients with hypoplastic left heart and related syndromes. At 6 years, we compared transplant-free survival and other outcomes between the groups.Methods:Medical history was collected annually using medical record review, telephone interviews, and the death index. The cohort included 549 patients randomized and treated in the SVR trial.Results:Transplant-free survival for the RVPAS versus modified Blalock–Taussig shunt groups did not differ at 6 years (64% versus 59%, P=0.25) or with all available follow-up of 7.1±1.6 years (log-rank P=0.13). The RVPAS versus modified Blalock–Taussig shunt treatment effect had nonproportional hazards (P=0.009); the hazard ratio (HR) for death or transplant favored the RVPAS before stage II surgery (HR, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.48–0.92). The effect of shunt type on death or transplant was not statistically significant between stage II to Fontan surgery (HR, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.86–2.17; P=0.17) or after the Fontan procedure (HR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.33–1.74; P=0.52). By 6 years, patients with RVPAS had a higher incidence of catheter interventions (0.38 versus 0.23/patient-year, P<0.001), primarily because of more interventions between the stage II and Fontan procedures (HR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–3.03). Complications did not differ by shunt type; by 6 years, 1 in 5 patients had had a thrombotic event, and 1 in 6 had had seizures.Conclusions:By 6 years, the hazards of death or transplant and catheter interventions were not different between the RVPAS versus modified Blalock–Taussig shunt groups. Children assigned to the RVPAS group had 5% higher transplant-free survival, but the difference did not reach statistical significance, and they required more catheter interventions. Both treatment groups have accrued important complications.Clinical Trial Registration:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00115934.
Charles D. Fraser, Jr
Nicotinamide Riboside Preserves Cardiac Function in a Mouse Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy [Original Research Article]21/5/2018
Nicolas Diguet, Samuel A.J. Trammell, Cynthia Tannous, Robin Deloux, Jerome Piquereau, Nathalie Mougenot, Anne Gouge, Melanie Gressette, Boris Manoury, Jocelyne Blanc, Marie Breton, Jean–Francois Decaux, Gareth G. Lavery, Istvan Baczko, Joffrey Zoll, Anne Garnier, Zhenlin Li, Charles Brenner, Mathias Mericskay
Background:Myocardial metabolic impairment is a major feature in chronic heart failure. As the major coenzyme in fuel oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and a substrate for enzymes signaling energy stress and oxidative stress response, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is emerging as a metabolic target in a number of diseases including heart failure. Little is known on the mechanisms regulating homeostasis of NAD+ in the failing heart.Methods:To explore possible alterations of NAD+ homeostasis in the failing heart, we quantified the expression of NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes in the human failing heart and in the heart of a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) triggered by Serum Response Factor transcription factor depletion in the heart (SRFHKO) or of cardiac hypertrophy triggered by transverse aorta constriction. We studied the impact of NAD+ precursor supplementation on cardiac function in both mouse models.Results:We observed a 30% loss in levels of NAD+ in the murine failing heart of both DCM and transverse aorta constriction mice that was accompanied by a decrease in expression of the nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme that recycles the nicotinamide precursor, whereas the nicotinamide riboside kinase 2 (NMRK2) that phosphorylates the nicotinamide riboside precursor is increased, to a higher level in the DCM (40-fold) than in transverse aorta constriction (4-fold). This shift was also observed in human failing heart biopsies in comparison with nonfailing controls. We show that the Nmrk2 gene is an AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α responsive gene that is activated by energy stress and NAD+ depletion in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Nicotinamide riboside efficiently rescues NAD+ synthesis in response to FK866-mediated inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and stimulates glycolysis in cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, we show that nicotinamide riboside supplementation in food attenuates the development of heart failure in mice, more robustly in DCM, and partially after transverse aorta constriction, by stabilizing myocardial NAD+ levels in the failing heart. Nicotinamide riboside treatment also robustly increases the myocardial levels of 3 metabolites, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, methylnicotinamide, and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-5-carboxamide, that can be used as validation biomarkers for the treatment.Conclusions:The data show that nicotinamide riboside, the most energy-efficient among NAD precursors, could be useful for treatment of heart failure, notably in the context of DCM, a disease with few therapeutic options.
Matthew A. Walker, Rong Tian
Andres Enriquez, Luis C. Saenz, Raphael Rosso, Frank E. Silvestry, David Callans, Francis E. Marchlinski, Fermin Garcia
The indications for catheter-based structural and electrophysiological procedures have recently expanded to more complex scenarios, in which an accurate definition of the variable individual cardiac anatomy is key to obtain optimal results. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a unique imaging modality able to provide high-resolution real-time visualization of cardiac structures, continuous monitoring of catheter location within the heart, and early recognition of procedural complications, such as pericardial effusion or thrombus formation. Additional benefits are excellent patient tolerance, reduction of fluoroscopy time, and lack of need for general anesthesia or a second operator. For these reasons, ICE has largely replaced transesophageal echocardiography as ideal imaging modality for guiding certain procedures, such as atrial septal defect closure and catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias, and has an emerging role in others, including mitral valvuloplasty, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and left atrial appendage closure. In electrophysiology procedures, ICE allows integration of real-time images with electroanatomic maps; it has a role in assessment of arrhythmogenic substrate, and it is particularly useful for mapping structures that are not visualized by fluoroscopy, such as the interatrial or interventricular septum, papillary muscles, and intracavitary muscular ridges. Most recently, a three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ICE system has also been developed, with potential for greater anatomic information and a promising role in structural interventions. In this state-of-the-art review, we provide guidance on how to conduct a comprehensive ICE survey and summarize the main applications of ICE in a variety of structural and electrophysiology procedures.
Association of Urinary Nitrate With Lower Prevalence of Hypertension and Stroke and With Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality [Research Letter]21/5/2018
Letter by Spartalis et al Regarding Article, “Left Ventricular Assist Device Malfunctions: It Is More Than Just the Pump” [Correspondence]21/5/2018
Michael Spartalis, Eleni Tzatzaki, Eleftherios Spartalis
Response by Kormos to Letter Regarding Article, “Left Ventricular Assist Device Malfunctions: It Is More Than Just the Pump” [Correspondence]21/5/2018
Robert L. Kormos
Letter by Madias Regarding Article, “Early Outcomes of Repair of Left Ventricular Apical Aneurysms in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy” [Correspondence]21/5/2018
John E. Madias
Response by Nguyen et al to Letter Regarding Article, “Early Outcomes of Repair of Left Ventricular Apical Aneurysms in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy” [Correspondence]21/5/2018
Anita Nguyen, Hartzell V. Schaff, Rick A. Nishimura, Joseph A. Dearani, Steve R. Ommen
Letter by Rodriguez-Granillo et al Regarding Article, “Acute Myocardial Infarction: Changes in Patient Characteristics, Management, and 6-Month Outcomes Over a Period of 20 Years in the FAST-MI Program (French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) 1995 to 2015” [Correspondence]21/5/2018
Gaston A. Rodriguez–Granillo, Alfredo E. Rodriguez, Jose Milei
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